Allen B.B.,New York Medical College |
Chiu Y.-L.,New York Medical College |
Gerber L.M.,Jamaica Hospital Medical Center |
Ghajar J.,Jamaica Hospital Medical Center |
And 2 more authors.
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2014
Objectives: Evidence-based traumatic brain injury guidelines support cerebral perfusion pressure thresholds for adults at a class 2 level, but evidence is lacking in younger patients. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of age-specific cerebral perfusion pressure thresholds on short-term survival among patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Design: Institutional review board-approved, prospective, observational cohort study. Setting: Level I or II trauma centers in New York State. Patients: Data on all patients with a postresuscitation Glasgow Coma Score less than 9 were added in the Brain Trauma Foundation prospective New York State TBI-trac database. Measurements and Main Results: We calculated the survival rates and relative risks of mortality for patients with severe traumatic brain injury based on predefined age-specific cerebral perfusion pressure thresholds. A higher threshold and a lower threshold were defined for each age group: 60 and 50mm Hg for 12 years old or older, 50 and 35mm Hg for 6-11 years, and 40 and 30 mm Hg for 0-5 years. Patients were stratified intoage groups of 0-11, 12-17, and 18years old or older. Three exclusive groups of CPP-L (events below low cerebral perfusion pressure threshold), CPP-B (events between high and low cerebral perfusion pressure thresholds), and CPP-H (events above high cerebral perfusion pressure threshold) were defined. As an internal control, we evaluated the associations between cerebral perfusion pressure events and events of hypotension and elevated intracranial pressure. Survival was significantly higher in 0-11 and 18 years old or older age groups for patients with CPP-H events compared with those with CPP-L events. There was a significant decrease in survival with prolonged exposure to CPP-B events for the 0-11 and 18 years old and older age groups when compared with the patients with CPP-H events (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.042, respectively). There was also a significant decrease in survival with prolonged exposure to CPP-L events in all age groups compared with the patients with CPP-H events (p < 0.0001 for 0- to 11-yr olds, p = 0.0240 for 12- to 17-yr olds, and p < 0.0001 for 18-yr old and older age groups). The 12- to 17-year olds had a significantly higher likelihood of survival compared with adults with prolonged exposure to CPP-L events (< 50mm Hg). CPP-L events were significantly related to systemic hypotension for the 12- to 17-year-old group (p = 0.004) and the 18-year-old and older group (p< 0.0001). CPP-B events were significantly related to systemic hypotension in the 0- to 11-year-old group (p = 0.014). CPP-B and CPP-L events were significantly related to elevated intracranial pressure in all age groups. Conclusions: Our data provide new evidence that cerebral perfusion pressure targets should be age specific. Furthermore, cerebral perfusion pressure goals above 50 or 60mm Hg in adults, above 50mm Hg in 6- to 17-year olds, and above 40 mm Hg in 0- to 5-year olds seem to be appropriate targets for treatment-based studies. Systemic hypotension had an inconsistent relationship to events of low cerebral perfusion pressure, whereas elevated intracranial pressure was significantly related to all low cerebral perfusion pressure events across all age groups. This may impart a clinically important difference in care, highlighting the necessity of controlling intracranial pressure at all times, while targeting systolic blood pressure in specific instances. Copyright © 2013 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies.
Gerber L.M.,New York Medical College |
Chiu Y.-L.,New York Medical College |
Carney N.,Oregon Health And Science University |
Hartl R.,New York Medical College |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neurosurgery | Year: 2013
Object. In spite of evidence that use of the Brain Trauma Foundation Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (Guidelines) would dramatically reduce morbidity and mortality, adherence to these Guidelines remains variable across trauma centers. The authors analyzed 2-week mortality due to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) from 2001 through 2009 in New York State and examined the trends in adherence to the Guidelines. Methods. The authors calculated trends in adherence to the Guidelines and age-adjusted 2-week mortality rates between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2009. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the effect of time period on case-fatality. Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitor insertion was modeled in a 2-level hierarchical model using generalized linear mixed effects to allow for clustering by different centers. Results. From 2001 to 2009, the case-fatality rate decreased from 22% to 13% (p < 0.0001), a change that remained significant after adjusting for factors that independently predict mortality (adjusted OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.39-0.70; p < 0.0001). Guidelines adherence increased, with the percentage of patients with ICP monitoring increasing from 56% to 75% (p < 0.0001). Adherence to cerebral perfusion pressure treatment thresholds increased from 15% to 48% (p < 0.0001). The proportion of patients having an ICP elevation greater than 25 mm Hg dropped from 42% to 29% (p = 0.0001). Conclusions. There was a significant reduction in TBI mortality between 2001 and 2009 in New York State. Increase in Guidelines adherence occurred at the same time as the pronounced decrease in 2-week mortality and decreased rate of intracranial hypertension, suggesting a causal relationship between Guidelines adherence and improved outcomes. Our findings warrant future investigation to identify methods for increasing and sustaining adherence to evidence-based Guidelines recommendations. ©AANS, 2013.
Newman K.,Jamaica Hospital Medical Center |
Owlia M.B.,University of Yazd |
El-Hemaidi I.,Princess Noorah Oncology Center 6447 |
Akhtari M.,University of Nebraska Medical Center
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2013
There are various immune cytopenias associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The most common one is anemia; however, there are different etiologies for the anemia caused by SLE. Anemia could be due to chronic disease, secondary to renal insufficiency, blood loss, drug induced or autoimmune hemolysis. There are other very rare causes of anemia secondary to SLE which include red cell aplasia, aplastic anemia, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Treatment of the anemia would be according to the cause. Leukopenia, neutropenia, and lymphopenia are hematologic complications associated with SLE, and in majority of cases no treatment is required. Thrombocytopenia is one of the complications of SLE and is usually treated by steroids. However, there are significant numbers of patients which will either not respond to or relapse after treatment. This article summarizes immune cytopenias seen in patients with SLE, and it also discusses management of these cytopenias. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Ashtari M.,Children's Hospital of Philadelphia |
Avants B.,University of Pennsylvania |
Cyckowski L.,Children's Hospital of Philadelphia |
Cervellione K.L.,Jamaica Hospital Medical Center |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Psychiatric Research | Year: 2011
Converging lines of evidence suggest an adverse effect of heavy cannabis use on adolescent brain development, particularly on the hippocampus. In this preliminary study, we compared hippocampal morphology in 14 "treatment-seeking" adolescents (aged 18-20) with a history of prior heavy cannabis use (5.8 joints/day) after an average of 6.7 months of drug abstinence, and 14 demographically matched normal controls. Participants underwent a high-resolution 3D MRI as well as cognitive testing including the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Heavy-cannabis users showed significantly smaller volumes of the right (p < 0.04) and left (p < 0.02) hippocampus, but no significant differences in the amygdala region compared to controls. In controls, larger hippocampus volumes were observed to be significantly correlated with higher CVLT verbal learning and memory scores, but these relationships were not observed in cannabis users. In cannabis users, a smaller right hippocampus volume was correlated with a higher amount of cannabis use (r = -0.57, p < 0.03). These data support a hypothesis that heavy cannabis use may have an adverse effect on hippocampus development. These findings, after an average 6.7 month of supervised abstinence, lend support to a theory that cannabis use may impart long-term structural and functional damage. Alternatively, the observed hippocampal volumetric abnormalities may represent a risk factor for cannabis dependence. These data have potential significance for understanding the observed relationship between early cannabis exposure during adolescence and subsequent development of adult psychopathology reported in the literature for schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Raoof S.,New York Methodist Hospital |
Feigin D.,Johns Hopkins University |
Sung A.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center |
Raoof S.,Jamaica Hospital Medical Center |
And 2 more authors.
Chest | Year: 2012
Plain chest roentgenogram remains the most commonly ordered screening test for pulmonary disorders. Its lower sensitivity demands greater accuracy in interpretation. This greater accuracy can be achieved by adhering to an optimal and organized approach to interpretation. It is important for clinicians not to misread an abnormal chest radiograph (CXR) as normal. Clinicians can only acquire the confidence in making this determination if they read hundreds of normal CXRs. An individual should follow the same systematic approach to reading CXRs each time. All clinicians must make a concerted effort to read plain CXRs themselves first without reading the radiologist report and then discuss the findings with their radiology colleagues. Looking at the lateral CXR may shed light on 15% of the lung that is hidden from view on the posteroanterior film. Comparing prior films with the recent films is mandatory, when available, to confirm and/or extend differential diagnosis. This article outlines one of the many systematic approaches to interpreting CXRs and highlights the lesions that are commonly missed. A brief description of the limitations of CXR is also included. © 2012 American College of Chest Physicians.
Song Y.S.,Harvard University |
Adler D.,Harvard University |
Xu F.,Harvard University |
Kayaalp E.,Yeditepe University |
And 6 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2010
The vitrification of a liquid occurs when ice crystal formation is prevented in the cryogenic environment through ultrarapid cooling. In general, vitrification entails a large temperature difference between the liquid and its surrounding medium. In our droplet vitrification experiments, we observed that such vitrification events are accompanied by a Leidenfrost phenomenon, which impedes the heat transfer to cool the liquid, when the liquid droplet comes into direct contact with liquid nitrogen. This is distinct from the more generally observed Leidenfrost phenomenon that occurs when a liquid droplet is self-vaporized on a hot plate. In the case of rapid cooling, the phase transition from liquid to vitrified solid (i.e., vitrification) and the levitation of droplets on liquid nitrogen (i.e., Leidenfrost phenomenon) take place simultaneously. Here, we investigate these two simultaneous physical events by using a theoretical model containing three dimensionless parameters (i.e., Stefan, Biot, and Fourier numbers). We explain theoretically and observe experimentally a threshold droplet radius during the vitrification of a cryoprotectant droplet in the presence of the Leidenfrost effect.
Wang B.,Jamaica Hospital Medical Center |
Wang B.,East Alabama Mental Health Center |
Chen D.,Jamaica Hospital Medical Center
Journal of Psychiatric Practice | Year: 2013
Objective. The goal of this article is to summarize the evidence for seasonal mania based on research studies and findings concerning interrelationships among circadian rhythm, manic episodes, and mood stabilizers. Methods. The PubMed database was searched using the key word "seasonal mania." This search generated a list of 197 papers published between 1990 and 2011, 29 of which were original research studies on seasonal mania. The findings from these studies were reviewed with regard to their relevance to the mechanisms involved in seasonal mania and strategies for managing mania. Results. Of the 29 research studies, the majority (n=23) provided evidence for a significant seasonal pattern for mania, while the other 6 studies did not. Most of the studies reported that mania occurred more often during spring and summer and that depression occurred more often during fall and winter. The authors of the studies estimated a prevalence of seasonal mania of 15% among patients with bipolar disorder. It is hypothesized that the underlying mechanism for seasonal mania may be hypersensitivity to bright light that suppresses melatonin production. Both lithium and valproate can counteract the action of bright light in suppressing melatonin and prolong sleep-wake cycles in the circadian rhythms of patients with bipolar disorder. These effects may at least partially explain their efficacy as mood stabilizing agents. No research studies were located that provided information on managing the medication regimen, especially of mood stabilizing medications, based on the seasonal patterns seen in some patients with bipolar disorder in order to reduce the risk of relapse associated with seasonal mania. Positive findings in this area might lead to a new paradigm for the management of patients with bipolar disorder who have seasonal mania. Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Inc.
Newman K.A.,Jamaica Hospital Medical Center |
Akhtari M.,University of Nebraska Medical Center
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2011
Autoimmune neutropenia, caused by neutrophil-specific autoantibodies is a common phenomenon in autoimmune disorders such as Felty's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus. Felty's syndrome is associated with neutropenia and splenomegaly in seropositive rheumatoid arthritis which can be severe and with recurrent bacterial infections. Neutropenia is also common in systemic lupus erythematosus and it is included in the current systemic lupus classification criteria. The pathobiology of the autoimmune neutropenia in Felty's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus is complex, and it could be a major cause of morbidity and mortality due to increased risk of sepsis. Treatment should be individualized on the basis of patient's clinical situation, and prevention or treatment of the infection. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is a safe and effective therapeutic modality in management of autoimmune neutropenia associated with Felty's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus, which stimulates neutrophil production. There is a slight increased risk of exacerbation of the underlying autoimmune disorder, and recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor dose and frequency should be adjusted at the lowest effective dose. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Egol K.A.,New York University |
Egol K.A.,Jamaica Hospital Medical Center |
Park J.H.,New York University |
Rosenberg Z.S.,NYU Langone Medical Center |
And 2 more authors.
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research | Year: 2014
Background: Bisphosphonate therapy for osteoporosis has been associated with atypical femoral fractures. To date, there have been few reports in the literature regarding the preoperative and postoperative courses of patients who have sustained bisphosphonate-associated complete atypical femur fractures. Objectives/purposes: The purposes of this study were to (1) characterize the preoperative course of patients who eventually presented with bisphosphonate-associated complete atypical femur fractures (duration of bisphosphonate treatment, pain history, risk of converting a nondisplaced fracture to a complete fracture); (2) evaluate the percentage of patients who achieved radiographic union of those fractures after treatment; and (3) determine the patients' recovery of function using the Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment. Methods: Thirty-three patients with 41 atypical, low-energy femur fractures associated with ≥ 5 years of bisphosphonate use were treated with intramedullary nailing between 2004 and 2011 at one center. The main outcome measurements were Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment for function and radiographic evaluation for fracture healing. Patients had been treated with bisphosphonates for an average of 8.8 years (range, 5-20 years) before presentation. Results: Patients reported a mean of 6 months of pain before presentation (range, 1-8 months). Sixty-six percent of patients with surgically treated complete fractures became pain-free and 98% were radiographically healed by 12 months. Sixty-four percent of patients who underwent intramedullary nailing reported a functional return to baseline within 1 year. Patients who reported major functional limitations at latest followup listed pain and apprehension as the major causes of their limitation. Conclusions: Patients with surgically treated bisphosphonate-associated complete femur fractures achieved generally reliable although delayed fracture healing if malaligned, and nearly two-thirds of patients returned to self-reported baseline function within 1 year. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. © 2013 The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons®.
Taormina D.P.,NYU Langone Medical Center |
Marcano A.I.,NYU Langone Medical Center |
Karia R.,NYU Langone Medical Center |
Egol K.A.,NYU Langone Medical Center |
And 2 more authors.
Bone | Year: 2014
The benefits of bisphosphonates are well documented, but prolonged use has been associated with atypical femur fractures. Radiographic markers for fracture predisposition could potentially aid in safer medication use. In this case-control designed study, we compared hip radiographic parameters and the demographic characteristics of chronic bisphosphonate users who sustained an atypical femoral fracture with a group of chronic bisphosphonate users who did not sustain an atypical femur fracture and also a group who sustained an intertrochanteric hip fracture. Radiographic parameters included were neck-shaft angle (NSA), hip-axis length (HAL) and center-edge angle (CE). Multivariate regression was used to evaluate the relationship between radiographic measures and femur fracture. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis determined cut-off points for neck-shaft angle and risk of atypical femur fracture. Ultimately, pre-fracture radiographs of 53 bisphosphonate users who developed atypical fracture were compared with 43 asymptomatic chronic bisphosphonate users and 64 intertrochanteric fracture patients. Duration of bisphosphonate use did not statistically differ between users sustaining atypical fracture and those without fracture (7.9 [±. 3.5] vs. 7.7 [±. 3.3] years, p=0.7). Bisphosphonate users who fractured had acute/varus pre-fracture neck-shaft angles (p. <. 0.001), shorter hip-axis length (p. <. 0.01), and narrower center-edge angles (p. <. 0.01). Regression analysis revealed associations between neck-shaft angle (OR=0.89 [95% CI=0.81-0.97; p=0.01), center edge angle (OR=0.89 [95% CI=0.80-0.99]; p=0.03), and BMI (OR=1.15 [95% CI=1.02-1.31; p=0.03) with fracture development. ROC curve analysis (AUC=0.67 [95% CI=0.56-0.79]) determined that a cut-off point for neck-shaft angle <. 128.3° yielded 69% sensitivity and 63% specificity for development of atypical femoral fracture. Ultimately, an acute/varus angle of the femoral neck, high BMI, and narrow center-edge angle were associated with development of atypical femur fracture in long-term bisphosphonate users. Patients on long-term bisphosphonates should be regularly radiographically evaluated in order to assess for potential risk of atypical fracture. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.