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Kampar, Malaysia

Lau L.C.,Jalan University | Mohamad Nor N.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Lee K.T.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Mohamed A.R.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering | Year: 2015

Biogas contains hydrogen sulphide (H2S), which is an acidic gas that would causes severe corrosion to the mechanical parts of combustion engines. Therefore, hydrogen sulphide must be separated from biogas prior to combustion. Among the conventional methods, the use of a cheap adsorbent appears to be one of the most promising methods for H2S removal. CeO2/NaOH/PSAC was successfully synthesized and used to remove H2S from a simulated biogas stream. A better synthesis method was found by applying a soaking method to impregnate cerium oxide into palm shell activated carbon (PSAC). Cerium oxide (CeO2) was obtained via a reaction between cerium nitrate hydrate (Ce(NO3)3·6H2O) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The calcination step was crucial for this synthetic route to enhance the H2S adsorption capacity of the adsorbent. Selected adsorbents were characterized using several techniques and provided further information about the surface properties, functional groups, morphologies/composition and chemical states of the selected adsorbents. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Aziz H.,National University of Malaysia | Aziz H.,Jalan University | Hatah E.,National University of Malaysia | Makmor Bakry M.,National University of Malaysia | Islahudin F.,National University of Malaysia
Patient Preference and Adherence | Year: 2016

Background: A previous systematic review reported that increase in patients’ medication cost-sharing reduced patients’ adherence to medication. However, a study among patients with medication subsidies who received medication at no cost found that medication nonadherence was also high. To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the influence of different medication payment schemes on patients’ medication adherence. Objective: This study aims to review research reporting the influence of payment schemes and their association with patients’ medication adherence behavior. Methods: This study was conducted using systematic review of published articles. Relevant published articles were located through three electronic databases Medline, ProQuest Medical Library, and ScienceDirect since inception to February 2015. Included articles were then reviewed and summarized narratively. Results: Of the total of 2,683 articles located, 21 were included in the final analysis. There were four types of medication payment schemes reported in the included studies: 1) out-of-pocket expenditure or copayments; 2) drug coverage or insurance benefit; 3) prescription cap; and 4) medication subsidies. Our review found that patients with “lower self-paying constraint” were more likely to adhere to their medication (adherence rate ranged between 28.5% and 94.3%). Surprisingly, the adherence rate among patients who received medication as fully subsidized was similar (rate between 34% and 84.6%) as that of other payment schemes. The studies that evaluated patients with fully subsidized payment scheme found that the medication adherence was poor among patients with nonsevere illness. Conclusion: Although medication adherence was improved with the reduction of cost-sharing such as lower copayment, higher drug coverage, and prescription cap, patients with full-medication subsidies payment scheme (received medication at no cost) were also found to have poor adherence to their medication. Future studies comparing factors that may influence patients’ adherence to medication among patients who received medication subsidies should be done to develop strategies to overcome medication nonadherence. © 2016 Aziz et al. Source


Sreehari Sastry S.,Acharya Nagarjuna University | Babu S.,Acharya Nagarjuna University | Vishwam T.,Gandhi Institute of Technology and Management | Sie Tiong H.,Jalan University
Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics | Year: 2014

Speed of sound (U), density (ρ) and viscosity (η) values for the equimolar mixtures of (methyl benzoate + 1-propanol) and (ethyl benzoate + 1-propanol) with 1-butanol/1-pentanol including those of pure liquids were measured over the entire mole fraction range at T = 303.15 K. Using these experimentally determined values, various thermo-acoustic parameters such as excess isentropic compressibility (KsE), excess molar volume (VE) and excess free length (LfE), excess Gibbs free energy (ΔG â̂ - E) and excess enthalpy (HE) have been calculated. The excess functions have been fitted to the Redlich-Kister type polynomial equation. The deviations for excess thermo-acoustic parameters have been explained on the basis of the intermolecular interactions present in these binary mixtures. The experimentally determined values of speed of sound have been used to check the applicability of different speed of sound models of Nomoto, Impedance relation, Van Dael and Vangeel, Junjie's, free length theory and Rao's relation. Viscosity results have been used to test the applicability of standard viscosity models of Grunberg-Nissan, Hind-Mc Laughlin, Katti-Chaudhary, Heric and Brewer, Frenkel and Tamura and Kurata at various temperatures for the binary liquid systems under study. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Sreehari Sastry S.,Acharya Nagarjuna University | Babu S.,Acharya Nagarjuna University | Vishwam T.,Gandhi Institute of Technology and Management | Parvateesam K.,Acharya Nagarjuna University | Sie Tiong H.,Jalan University
Physica B: Condensed Matter | Year: 2013

Various thermo-acoustic parameters, such as excess isentropic compressibility (Ks E), excess molar volume (V E), excess free length (Lf E), excess Gibb's free energy (ΔG*E), and excess Enthalpy (HE), have been calculated from the experimentally determined data of density, viscosity and speed of sound for the binary mixtures of ethyl benzoate+1-propanol, or +1-butanol, or +1-pentanol over the entire range of composition at different temperatures (303, 308, 313, 318 and 323 K). The excess functions have been fitted to the Redlich-Kister type polynomial equation. The deviations for excess thermo-acoustic parameters have been explained on the basis of the intermolecular interactions present in these binary mixtures. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Sastry S.S.,Acharya Nagarjuna University | Ha S.T.,Jalan University | Gowri Sankara Rao B.,Acharya Nagarjuna University | Mallika K.,Acharya Nagarjuna University | Kumari T.V.,Acharya Nagarjuna University
Liquid Crystals | Year: 2012

An image analysis technique in conjunction with polarising optical microscopy (POM) is proposed for assessment of the thermo-optical properties of homogeneously aligned chiral ester liquid crystals of the type ((S)-(-)-2-methylbutyl 4′-(4″-n-alkanoyloxybenzoyloxy) biphenyl-4-carboxylates, where n = 16 or 18. Chiral ester textures are recorded as a function of temperature using POM provided with a hot-stage and a high-resolution colour camera. Temperature-dependent optical parameters, or thermo-optical properties such as optical transmission, degree of polarisation, absorption coefficient and birefringence are computed for chiral esters by analysing the texture of samples using MATLAB software. This is a simple experimental technique for observing how the optical parameters of liquid crystals change with temperature. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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