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Jain K.K.,Jain PharmaBiotech
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2012

Development of personalized medicine involves integration of several biotechnologies. This editorial stresses the important role that biological therapies such as cell and gene therapies, recombinant proteins and vaccines play in personalization of treatment. Cell-based therapies, particularly vaccines made from the patient's own tumor cells, were the first therapeutic vaccines for cancer. Adoptive cell therapy is an immunotherapy based on ex vivo expansion of autologous T lymphocytes and subsequent administration to cancer patients. Stem cells as well as genetic modification of cells has been used for in vivo production of therapeutic substances best suited for individual patients. Besides cell therapy, RNAi has been used for personalized therapy of cancer. Monoclonal antibodies, designed to bind specifically to receptors in certain tumors, are also personalized medicines. © Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Jain K.K.,Jain PharmaBiotech
Neuromethods | Year: 2010

Limitation of drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) is a major problem in development of successful treatment of CNS disorders. Concepts of blood-brain barrier (BBB), its role in transport of various substances from the blood to the brain, as well as strategies to deliver drugs across the BBB have evolved over the past century. This chapter is an overview of the challenges and various approaches to drug delivery in CNS disorders as an introduction to other chapters, which deal with laboratory and clinical methods of CNS drug delivery. A classification of current strategies for drug delivery across the BBB is presented. These include novel formulations of drugs such as nanoparticles and strategies to cross the BBB. Drugs can be introduced directly into the CNS and various devices are used for this purpose. Drugs can be administered systemically by various routes for targeted delivery to the site of action. Various methods of cell and gene therapies are used for drug delivery to the CNS. Finally, methods of delivery are classified according to various neurological disorders. © 2010 Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Jain K.K.,Jain PharmaBiotech
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2010

Importance of the field: Personalized medicine has extended to management of cancer and implies prescription of specific therapeutics best suited for an individual patient and the type of tumor. These principles have been applied to cancer vaccines. Areas covered in this review: Various cancer vaccines that can be personalized. Tumor-derived vaccines have been used and active immunotherapy based on antigens specific to the tumor. Dendritic cells (DCs) can prime tumor-specific T cell responses and are considered potentially effective vaccines for cancer. DCs may be genetically modified or fused with tumor cells. Adoptive cell therapy is based on autologous antigen-specific T lymphocytes. Personalized peptide vaccination has been combined with chemotherapy. Clinical trials have been conducted. There have been many failures but a selection of those currently in progress is presented. What the reader will gain: An overview of various types of personalized cancer vaccines, their mechanism of action and current status of development. Causes of failure of clinical trials and concepts of an ideal personalized cancer vaccine are presented. Take home message: A number of approaches are available for personalized cancer vaccines with variable degree of success. There are several challenges and needs for refinement of methods but it remains a promising area of cancer therapy. © Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Jain K.K.,Jain PharmaBiotech
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology | Year: 2015

Advances in proteomic technologies have made import contribution to the development of personalized medicine by facilitating detection of protein biomarkers, proteomics-based molecular diagnostics, as well as protein biochips and pharmacoproteomics. Application of nanobiotechnology in proteomics, nanoproteomics, has further enhanced applications in personalized medicine. Proteomics-based molecular diagnostics will have an important role in the diagnosis of certain conditions and understanding the pathomechanism of disease. Proteomics will be a good bridge between diagnostics and therapeutics; the integration of these will be important for advancing personalized medicine. Use of proteomic biomarkers and combination of pharmacoproteomics with pharmacogenomics will enable stratification of clinical trials and improve monitoring of patients for development of personalized therapies. Proteomics is an important component of several interacting technologies used for development of personalized medicine, which is depicted graphically. Finally, cancer is a good example of applications of proteomic technologies for personalized management of cancer. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Jain K.K.,Jain PharmaBiotech
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

This is an overview of the current drug delivery systems (DDS) starting with various routes of drug administration. Various drug formulations are then described as well as devices used for drug delivery and targeted drug delivery. There has been a considerable increase in the number of new biotechnology-based therapeutics. Most of these are proteins and peptides, and their delivery presents special challenges. Cell and gene therapies are sophisticated methods of delivery of therapeutics. Nanoparticles are considered to be important in refining drug delivery; they can be pharmaceuticals as well as diagnostics. Refinements in drug delivery will facilitate the development of personalized medicine in which targeted drug delivery will play an important role. There is discussion about the ideal DDS, commercial aspects, challenges, and future prospects. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media, New York. Source

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