Joshi A.,Jaihind College |
Rane P.,Jaihind College
Pollution Research | Year: 2013
Noise pollution is a common problem in urban areas with ever increasing vehicular density. Urban trees help in noise attenuation. Various methods are employed to measure sound absorption coefficients of substances. Sound absorption coefficient is normally measured using expensive instruments and calculating absorption coefficients. The absorption coefficient of a substance falls within a scale from 0 to 1. The concept of this absorption coefficient was established by Sabine. In the current work sound absorption ratios of leaves of some tree species are derived using a impedance tube, function generator, standard audio amplifier, omnidirectional microphone and oscilloscope connected together. A sound absorption ratio was derived to measure sound absorption on a relative scale in a closed system calculate sound absorption ratio Sabine's formula was used and absorption ratio was derived. Sound absorption ratio towards unity indicates poor sound absorption capacity. Sound absorption ratio of leaves of different tree species was studied. Observations were made using oscilloscope connected to a long impendence tube and a speaker at different frequencies like 500Hz, 700Hz etc. In designing the tube 500Hz - 1000Hz was taken as operating frequency for the reverberation testing and used in sound absorption test. To reduce the effect of attenuation due to walls of tube it was desired to have a large diameter of tube and long length so that at least two minima and one maximum could be found. An omnidirectional microphone was used to study standing pattern. Readings were taken with and without samples so that every time when samples were replaced by the other the initial setting was not disturbed. Initial setting wave pattern was maintained by adjusting i/p power (i.e. current & voltage) of the speaker. At 500Hz the noise levels are closer to audible range, hence it was used as reference and for comparison of absorption by plants at other frequencies. According to the study, leaves of different plant species showed different absorption at different frequencies. Barringtonia acutangula Goerb, Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Ficus benghalensis L, Ficus glomerata Roxb, FICHS religiosa L, Mangifera indica L, Polyatlhia longifolia Thev, Sterculia urens L and Thespesia populnea Soland are good sound absorption the method is relatively inexpensive and easy to use to measure sound absorption of foliar surfaces. Copyright © EM International.
Joshi A.,Jaihind College
Journal of Industrial Pollution Control | Year: 2013
Foliar surfaces of the leaf are the first of the plant system to receive the impact of dust particles in the atmosphere. Leaf surfaces characterized by presence of hair, trichomes and wax act as a trap for dust particles. Different plant species capture dust in different quantities depending on their morphology and phyllotaxy. This characteristic can be used to monitor dust in the environment. The city of Mumbai has several areas which lie barren on the side of the roads which are dominated by naturally growing plants. Six most commonly growing plants on the road side in the city of Mumbai were selected to study their dust capturing capacities. These were Abutilon indicum(L.), Achyranthes porphyrystachya (L.), Hyptis sauveolens(L.), Ipomoea carneai] acq.), Malachra capitataiL.) and Xanthiutn strumariutn(L.). Foliar dust deposits were collected form ten different sites within and outside the city. Due to the morphological structure of the leaf, Hyptis sauveolens(L.)vfas found to be the best dust collector, being seven times more efficient at dust accumulation than Ipomoea carnea which collected the least dust (ANOVA, F=2.6, P < 0.05). While the remaining plants A. porphyrystachya, M.capitata and X. strumarium did not statistically differ in their dust accumulating capacity. Plants growing along highway showed maximum dust deposition. Hyptis sauveolens can effectively be used to phytomonitor ambient dust load in the city of Mumbai.Grant: Acknowledgments: The authors are grateful to the University Grants Comission , India, for financial support. Thanks to Dr. Y.E. Jhala for statistical inputs. © EM International.
Joshi A.,Jaihind College
Pollution Research | Year: 2014
Ganesh festival is a very popular festival in Maharashtra. Idols of lord Ganesh are brought to homes and also in public places to worship for a period of lldays. On the final day the idols are immersed in a nearby water body. The occasion is celebrated with huge pomp and splendour. Noise levels, at four different locations in Palghar tehsil a far western suburban of Mumbai city were recorded with a sound level meter on a normal working day and the final day of the festival. Noise pollution indices viz LeqLmax Lmin, L10 LNPNoise Pollution Levels) and Noise Climate were calculated. Noise levels exceeded the norms set by the central pollution control board on both the days with conspicuous increase in noise levels on the final day at all the sites Vaitama site indicated the category of safe zone on festive and non-festive day. Saphale site exhibited low to moderate risk zone category for 4pm, 5pm and 6 pm time slot for festive days and for rest all time slots of festive day it showed the category of high risk zone. Boisar site indicated high risk on festive day. On non-festive day Saphale, Palghar and Boisar site indicated safe zone, safe to low risk zone and safe to moderate zone category respectively. Noise levels are not monitored by any agency in this area. Copyright © EM International.
Joshi A.,Jaihind College
Pollution Research | Year: 2014
Canopy variations of the trees lining the roads, at different parts of Mumbai city were observed and an attempt is made to relate the different canopy shapes with urban activity in the immediate vicinity. A tree survey was carried out along five classes of roads, Main Roads, Secondary Roads, Tertiary Roads, Western Express Highway and Eastern Express Highway in the city. The five most common trees encountered were Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC), Samanea saman (Jacq), Delonix regia (Hook), Thespesia populnea (L.), and Erythrina indica Lam. Canopy shapes of individual trees were recorded for comparison with a standard set. The canopy shapes showed variations within the species and in many instances deviated away form the normal canopy shape. More than 60% of trees showed deviation from normal canopy shapes. Flattening of canopy in Samanea saman (Jacq), Peltophorum inerme (DC) and Erythrina indica Lam was very frequent. Order of sensitivities of the five species in terms of canopy shapes in the city, is Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC), Delonix regia (Hook), Erythrina indica Lam, Thespesia populnea (L.), and Samanea saman (Jacq). Copyright © EM International.
Pawar N.J.,University of Pune |
Pawar J.B.,Jaihind College
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2016
Geochemical baseline (geogenic+anthropogenic) and background (geogenic) levels of heavy metals in the ground waters from basaltic aquifers of Deccan Volcanic Province of India depicted intra-annual variability on spatial scale. Classified into ‘Group I’ (Fe > Mn > Zn > Pb) and ‘Group II’ (Mo > Ni > Cr > Cu), metals depicted contrasting enrichment and depletion patterns seasonally, attributable to geologic controls and water table fluctuations. While, fortification in Mo–Ni in post-monsoon (high water table) is on account of combined lithogenic+anthropogenic contributions, pre-monsoon augmentation in Fe–Mn (low water table) is entirely lithogenic. Positive values of Normalised Difference Dispersal Index, replicates the dominant role of soil/vadose zone as a chief supplier of metals to the groundwater during post-monsoon, while negative figures recommend host rock as a primary source of accretion of metals in pre-monsoon. Higher Ni/Cr ratios for wells in alluvial aquifer (fertile agriculture plain) than the basaltic and dyke aquifers, further suggest enhanced input of the elements (Mo, Ni > Cu) from soil and agriculture land use in post-monsoon season. Values of Ni/Cr ratio above unity for majority of the wells in post-monsoon and nearly 50 % wells in pre-monsoon suggest privileged weathering of olivine, followed by pyroxene > plagioclase feldspar (Ni/Cr <1) as a major cause of heavy metal load to the groundwater. Pearson correlation coefficients authenticate these inferences by means of elemental associations. The study unveils multi-source derivation of heavy metals related to seasonal fluctuation in the water table conditions leading to range of heavy metals in the groundwater from the study area. The target hazard quotient (THQ) values of heavy metals closer to unity and above unity highlight the possible health risk hazard associated with the consumption of metal contaminated groundwater. The study thus highlights the importance of baseline geochemical mapping to assess the state of near surface environment as heavy metals are closely linked to human health. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.