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Ussuf K.K.,Jai Research Foundation | Parekh V.,Jai Research Foundation | Sharma A.K.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center
Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2012

A high throughput PCR array technique has been developed for the simultaneous detection of several mycotoxin-producing fungi by using Real - Time PCR. The primers were designed based on the key genes involved in the different mycotoxin producing biosynthetic pathway of aflatoxin, Patulin, Trichothecene, Fumonisins and Ochratoxin A with a uniform Tm (Melting Temperature) to use in a single array simultaneously. These primers were arranged in an array form for the simultaneous detection of 14 mycotoxin-producing fungi in a single reaction set up. The method was validated by using the standard authentic DNA isolated from different mycotoxin producing fungi and real - Time PCR was performed by using SYBR Green 1 fluorescent dye method. The validated protocol was employed for screening the commercially available food samples by using the DNA isolated from the collected food samples. The results from these studies have shown that several commercially available food samples are contaminated with mycotoxin producing fungi. Thus this high throughput Real - Time PCR technology can be employed for the screening of food samples for detecting the contaminating fungi. © Global Science Publications.


Desai J.,Narsee Monjee Institute of Management and Higher Studies | Belemkar S.,Narsee Monjee Institute of Management and Higher Studies | Patel M.,Jai Research Foundation
International Journal of Phytomedicine | Year: 2015

Context: Trigonella foenum graecum L. (Fabaceae) seeds have been extensively used in Ayurveda and Unani medicine. It has been used as a traditional medicine for a household remedy against various human ailments. The seeds have been shown to possess hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant activity. Objective: The present study is to evaluate whether ovariectomised (OVX) Wistar rats could form an experimental model of postmenopausal hyperlipidemia and to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic potential of Atorvastatin (AT) and Ethyl acetate extract of Trigonella foenum graecum L. Seeds (ET) in OVX Wistar rats and toxicity associated with it. Methods: Ovariectomy was performed to mimic the postmenopausal hyperlipidemic condition in Wistar rats. The effects of AT and ET on body weight, weight of uterus and the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were also evaluated. Results: The rats in OVX control group showed 51% weight gain when compared with vehicle control group. The serum TC, TG, LDL, VLDL of OVX control group was found to be increased significantly; serum HDL level was reduced and atrophy of uterus was observed in comparison with vehicle control group. The ET showed the significant (P<0.05, P<0.01) antihyperlipidemic potency when compared with AT & proportional antihyperlipidemic potency in comparison with Estradiol benzoate (EB). Conclusion: These findings confirm the bilateral OVX Wistar rats as a model of postmenopausal hypercholesterolemia. The significant antihyperlipidemic activity of ET thus lends pharmacological credence to the suggested use of the plant as a safe natural remedy in the treatment of postmenopausal hyperlipidemia. © 2015, Advanced Research Journals. All rights reserved.


Samnani P.,M. S. University of Baroda | Vishwakarma K.,Jai Research Foundation | Pandey S.Y.,Jai Research Foundation
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2011

A rapid, sensitive and reliable HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of imidacloprid residue in water at different pH and in soil. Quantification was performed by reversed phase HPLC system equipped with UV detector. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was found to be 0.02 mg/kg in soil and 0.02 mg/L in water. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.006 mg/kg in soil and 0.006 mg/L in water. Recoveries for imidacloprid were 95.18%, 94.66%, 95.27% and 94.78% in black, red, sandy loam and clay soils, respectively. Recoveries for imidacloprid from water were 96.86%, 86.14%, and 92.34% at pH values of 4, 7, and 9, respectively. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Singh S.K.,Jai Research Foundation | Padmaja P.,M. S. University of Baroda | Pandey S.Y.,Jai Research Foundation
Journal of Separation Science | Year: 2014

A fast and an efficient ultrasound-assisted extraction technique using a lower density extraction solvent than water was developed for the trace-level determination of tebuconazole in garlic, soil and water samples followed by capillary gas chromatography combined with nitrogen-phosphorous selective detector (GC-NPD). In this approach, ultrasound radiation was applied to accelerate the emulsification of the ethyl acetate in aqueous samples to enhance the extraction efficiency of tebuconazole without requiring extra partitioning or cleaning, and the use of capillary GC-NPD was a more sensitive detection technique for organonitrogen pesticides. The experimental results indicate an excellent linear relationship between peak area and concentration obtained in the range 1-50 μg/kg or μg/L. The limit of detection (S/N, 3 ± 0.5) and limit of quantification (S/N, 7.5 ± 2.5) were obtained in the range 0.2-3 and 1-10 μg/kg or μg/L. Good spiked recoveries were achieved from ranges 95.55-101.26%, 96.28-99.33% and 95.04-105.15% in garlic, Nanivaliyal soil and Par River water, respectively, at levels 5 and 20 μg/kg or μg/L, and the method precision (% RSD) was ≤5%. Our results demonstrate that the proposed technique is a viable alternative for the determination of tebuconazole in complex samples. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Verma R.,Jai Research Foundation | Brahmankar M.,Jai Research Foundation | Kushwah L.,Jai Research Foundation | Suresh B.,M. S. University of Baroda
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

The present study examined the protective effect of sulindac on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in rats. Animals were divided into saline group, bleomycin group (single intra-tracheal instillation of bleomycin) and bleomycin. +. sulindac (orally from day 1 to day 20). Bleomycin administration reduced the body weight, altered antioxidant status (such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione) while it increased the lung weight, hydroxyproline content, collagen deposition and lipid peroxidation. However, simultaneous administration of sulindac improved the body weight, antioxidant status and decreased the collagen deposition in lungs. Moreover, the levels of inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α increased in bleomycin-induced group, whereas, on treatment with sulindac the levels of tumour necrosis factor-α were found reduced. Finally, histological evidence also supported the ability of sulindac to inhibit bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. The results of the present study indicate that sulindac can be used as an agent against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Verma R.,Jai Research Foundation | Kushwah L.,Jai Research Foundation | Gohel D.,Jai Research Foundation | Patel M.,Jai Research Foundation | And 2 more authors.
Pulmonary Medicine | Year: 2013

The current study deals with the effect of a dietary flavanoid quercetin on fibrotic lung tissue in rats. Bleomycin was administered by single intratracheal instillation to Wistar rats to induce lung fibrosis. The pathologies associated with this included significantly reduced antioxidant capacity, ultimately leading to protracted inflammation of the lung tissue. The hallmark of this induced fibrosis condition was an excessive collagen deposition in peribronchial and perialveolar regions of the lung. Oral quercetin treatment over a period of twenty days resulted in significant reversal of the pathologies. The antioxidant defense in lung tissue was revived. Moreover, activity of the collagenase MMP-7, which was high in fibrotic tissue, was seen restored after quercetin administration. Trichome staining of lung tissue sections showed high collagen deposition in fibrotic rats, which may be a direct result of increased mobilization of collagen by MMP-7. This was appreciably reduced in quercetin treated animals. These results point towards an important protective role of quercetin against idiopathic lung fibrosis, which remains a widely prevalent yet incurable condition in the present times. © 2013 Ramesh Verma et al.


Samnani P.,M. S. University of Baroda | Vishwakarma K.,Jai Research Foundation
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment | Year: 2013

This study was conducted to determine the hydrolysis rate and half-life of imidacloprid technical in buffer solution of pH 4.0, 7.0 and 9.0 at 50 ± 0.5 °C. In the preliminary test, the initial concentration of Imidacloprid (0 hour) in buffer solutions at pH 4.0, 7.0 and 9.0 was 3.93, 3.89 and 3.99 μg/mL respectively. The imidacloprid concentration after 2 hours of incubation at 50 ± 0.5 °C in buffer solutions of pH 4.0, 7.0 and 9.0, was 3.94, 3.86 and 3.95 μg/mL respectively. The per cent hydrolysis data revealed that degradation of imidacloprid at pH 4.0, 7.0 and 9.0 was less than 10% in the preliminary test (5 days). Hence, it is concluded that the theoretical half-life of imidacloprid TC is >1 year at 25 °C and imidacloprid is hydrolytically stable and unlikely to hydrolyse under the environmental conditions.


Shah P.,Maliba Pharmacy College | Ghag M.,Jai Research Foundation | Deshmukh P.,Jai Research Foundation | Kulkarni Y.,Narsee Monjee Institute of Management and Higher Studies | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Green Pharmacy | Year: 2012

Acorus calamus is widely used in traditional medicine in various ailments. However, there is no toxicological information available regarding its safety after exposure. The present study was designed to evaluate potential toxicity of an ethanolic extract of Acorus calamus Linn. rhizomes after acute and chronic administration in Wistar rats. In the acute toxicity study, female Wistar rats were treated with ethanolic extract by oral gavage at dose levels of 175, 550, 1750 and 5000 mg/kg body weight according to OECD 425. Animals were observed periodically during the first 24 h after administration of the extract, and daily thereafter for 14 days. In the chronic toxicity study, the ethanolic extract of Acorus calamus was administered orally at doses of 0, 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight daily for 90 days in Wistar rats. The effects on clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, organ weight, haematology, clinical biochemistry, as well as histology, were studied. No mortality was observed, but clinical signs like abdominal breathing, piloerection and tremors were observed for 30 min in rats dosed with 1750 mg and 5000 mg/kg body weight of extract. No statistical significant data in body weight and feed consumption were observed. Haematological and biochemical analysis showed no marked differences in any of the parameters. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. The ethanolic extract of A. calamus does not appear to have toxicity on acute and chronic administration in Wistar rats.

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