Bremen, Germany

Jacobs University Bremen
Bremen, Germany

Jacobs University Bremen is an international, private residential university in Bremen, Germany.Jacobs University is an English-speaking higher education institution and combines aspects from the American and German academic systems. Wikipedia.

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Jacobs University Bremen | Date: 2017-08-02

The invention relates to a method for antigen-specific immunostaining of T cells and to a staining kit for this purpose. The object of the present invention is to enable a simple and reliable antigen-specific detection of T cells. In order to solve the problem, the present invention provides a method for antigen-specific immunostaining of T cells, wherein a polyelectrolyte microcapsule having an antigen-presenting MHC class I molecule on the outside is contacted with a T cell bearing a T cell receptor under conditions that allow an interaction between the T cell receptor and the antigen-presenting MHC class I molecule so that a complex consisting of T cell, antigen-presenting MHC class I molecule and polyelectrolyte microcapsule can be formed. The invention further provides a staining kit for carrying out the method.

Jacobs University Bremen | Date: 2017-05-24

The invention relates to a genetically modified yeast with improved glycerol catabolism. The problem addressed by the present invention is the improvement of the capability of yeast to utilize glycerol as a carbon source. The problem is solved by a genetically modified yeast cell of the genus Saccharomyces with improved glycerol catabolism, wherein the yeast cell is genetically modified in such a way that a) the breakdown of glycerol to dihydroxyacetone phosphate via the glycerol-3-phosphate pathway is blocked, b) a heterologous glycerol uptake facilitator protein is expressed, and c1) a heterologous glycerol dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of glycerol to dihdroxyacetone is expressed, or a heterologous glycerol dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of glycerol to dihdroxyacetone is over-expressed, or c2) at least one enzyme that is involved in the breakdown of glycerol to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate via the glyceraldehyde pathway is over-expressed, or at least one enzyme that is involved in the breakdown of glycerol to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate via the glyceraldehyde pathway is replaced by a heterologous enzyme with the same enzyme activity.

Jacobs University Bremen | Date: 2016-12-28

The invention relates to a method for arranging an encrypted NFC connection. Two NFC devices (A, B) each exchange a signal of the same frequency having a random phase (A, B), this signal being registered at the other of the devices (B, A) as a reception signal with a frequency-specific and distance-dependent phase rotation (C), the phase of the devices own transmission signal being added to said reception signal in order to obtain a phase total ( A=A+B+C, B= A +B+C). The phase total produced in this manner is quantised in the signal space, in L of the same type levels, and the signal is coded in symbols represented by bit sequences. The suggested method does not require channel entropy and is secured from eavesdropping in a spatial section determined by the frequencies used.

Ghosh I.,Jacobs University Bremen | Nau W.M.,Jacobs University Bremen
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2012

Macrocyclic hosts of the cyclodextrin, sulfonatocalixarene, and cucurbituril type can be employed as discrete supramolecular drug delivery systems, thereby complementing existing supramolecular drug formulation strategies based on polymers, hydrogels, liposomes, and related microheterogeneous systems. Cucurbiturils, in particular, stand out in that they do not only provide a hydrophobic cavity to encapsulate the drug in the form of a host-guest complex, but in that they possess cation-receptor properties, which favor the encapsulation of protonated drugs over their unprotonated forms, resulting in pronounced pKa shifts up to 5 units. These pKa shifts can be rationally exploited to activate prodrug molecules, to stabilize the active form of drug molecules, to enhance their solubility, and to increase their degree of ionization, factors which can jointly serve to enhance the bioavailability of drugs, particularly weakly basic ones. Additionally, macrocycles can serve to increase the chemical stability of drugs by protecting them against reactions with nucleophiles (e.g., thiols) and electrophiles, by increasing their photostability, and by causing a higher thermal stability in the solid state. Detailed examples of the different effects of macrocyclic encapsulation of drugs and the associated pKa shifts are provided and discussed. Other important considerations, namely a potential lowering of the bioactivity of drugs by macrocyclic complexation, interferences of the macrocycles with biocatalytic processes, the toxicity of the macrocyclic host molecules, and problems and opportunities related to a targeted release and the rate of release of the drug from the host-guest complexes are critically evaluated. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Voelcker-Rehage C.,Jacobs University Bremen | Niemann C.,Jacobs University Bremen
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2013

Physical activity has been shown to improve cognitive functioning. Research has largely focused on cognitive facilitation by cardiovascular exercise in older adults. Only few studies have investigated younger age groups or other types of physical activity. In this paper we review and summarize common results found in recent studies of metabolic (i.e. cardiovascular and resistance) and coordinative exercise. Findings from human motor learning are utilized to complement results on coordinative exercise. Results show that both types of exercise affect the brain differently. We propose possible mechanisms by which physical activity facilitates cognitive performance by briefly reviewing microscopic structural changes in animal research. Lastly, we highlight open research questions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-4-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 14.84M | Year: 2015

The social and economic challenges of ageing populations and chronic disease can only be met by translation of biomedical discoveries to new, innovative and cost effective treatments. The ESFRI Biological and Medical Research Infrastructures (BMS RI) underpin every step in this process; effectively joining scientific capabilities and shared services will transform the understanding of biological mechanisms and accelerate its translation into medical care. Biological and medical research that addresses the grand challenges of health and ageing span a broad range of scientific disciplines and user communities. The BMS RIs play a central, facilitating role in this groundbreaking research: inter-disciplinary biomedical and translational research requires resources from multiple research infrastructures such as biobank samples, and resources from multiple research infrastructures such as biobank samples, imaging facilities, molecular screening centres or animal models. Through a user-led approach CORBEL will develop the tools, services and data management required by cutting-edge European research projects: collectively the BMS RIs will establish a sustained foundation of collaborative scientific services for biomedical research in Europe and embed the combined infrastructure capabilities into the scientific workflow of advanced users. Furthermore CORBEL will enable the BMS RIs to support users throughout the execution of a scientific project: from planning and grant applications through to the long-term sustainable management and exploitation of research data. By harmonising user access, unifying data management, creating common ethical and legal services, and offering joint innovation support CORBEL will establish and support a new model for biological and medical research in Europe. The BMS RI joint platform will visibly reduce redundancy and simplify project management and transform the ability of users to deliver advanced, cross-disciplinary research.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-25-2015 | Award Amount: 4.18M | Year: 2016

We propose to fabricate a chip implementing a neuromorphic architecture that supports state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms and spike-based learning mechanisms. With respect to its physical architecture this chip will feature an ultra low power, scalable and highly configurable neural architecture that will deliver a gain of a factor 50x in power consumption on selected applications compared to conventional digital solutions; and a monolithically integrated 3D technology in Fully-Depleted Silicon on Insulator (FDSOI) at 28nm design rules with integrated Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) synaptic elements; We will complete this vision and develop complementary technologies that will allow to address the full spectrum of applications from mobile/autonomous objects to high performance computing coprocessing, by realising (1) a technology to implement on-chip learning, using native adaptive characteristics of electronic synaptic elements; and (2) a scalable platform to interconnect multiple neuromorphic processor chips to build large neural processing systems. The neuromorphic computing system will be developed jointly with advanced neural algorithms and computational architectures for online adaptation, learning, and high-throughput on-line signal processing, delivering 1. an ultra-low power massively parallel non von Neumann computing platform with non-volatile nano-scale devices that support on-line learning mechanisms 2. a programming toolbox of algorithms and data structures tailored to the specific constraints and opportunities of the physical architecture; 3. an array of fundamental application demonstrations instantiating the basic classes of signal processing tasks. The neural chip will validate the concept and be a first step to develop a European technology platform addressing from ultra-low power data processing in autonomous systems (Internet of Things) to energy efficient large data processing in servers and networks.

Assaf K.I.,Jacobs University Bremen | Nau W.M.,Jacobs University Bremen
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2015

In the wide area of supramolecular chemistry, cucurbit[n]urils (CBn) present themselves as a young family of molecular containers, able to form stable complexes with various guests, including drug molecules, amino acids and peptides, saccharides, dyes, hydrocarbons, perfluorinated hydrocarbons, and even high molecular weight guests such as proteins (e.g., human insulin). Since the discovery of the first CBn, CB6, the field has seen tremendous growth with respect to the synthesis of new homologues and derivatives, the discovery of record binding affinities of guest molecules in their hydrophobic cavity, and associated applications ranging from sensing to drug delivery. In this review, we discuss in detail the fundamental properties of CBn homologues and their cyclic derivatives with a focus on their synthesis and their applications in catalysis. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Heine T.,Jacobs University Bremen
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2015

CONSPECTUS: After the discovery of graphene and the development of powerful exfoliation techniques, experimental preparation of two-dimensional (2D) crystals can be expected for any layered material that is known to chemistry. Besides graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), transition metal chalcogenides (TMC) are among the most studied ultrathin materials. In particular, single-layer MoS2, a direct band gap semiconductor with ∼1.9 eV energy gap, is popular in physics and nanoelectronics, because it nicely complements semimetallic graphene and insulating h-BN monolayer as a construction component for flexible 2D electronics and because it was already successfully applied in the laboratory as basis material for transistors and other electronic and optoelectronic devices. Two-dimensional crystals are subject to significant quantum confinement: compared with their parent layered 3D material, they show different structural, electronic, and optical properties, such as spontaneous rippling as free-standing monolayer, significant changes of the electronic band structure, giant spin-orbit splitting, and enhanced photoluminescence. Most of those properties are intrinsic for the monolayer and already absent for two-layer stacks of the same 2D crystal. For example, single-layer MoS2 is a direct band gap semiconductor with spin-orbit splitting of 150 meV in the valence band, while the bilayer of the same material is an indirect band gap semiconductor without observable spin-orbit splitting. All these properties have been observed experimentally and are in excellent agreement with calculations based on density-functional theory. This Account reports theoretical studies of a subgroup of transition metal dichalcogenides with the composition MX2, with M = Mo, or W and X = Se or S, also referred to as "MoWSeS materials ". Results on the electronic structure, quantum confinement, spin-orbit coupling, spontaneous monolayer rippling, and change of electronic properties in the presence of an external electric field are reported. While all materials of the MoWSeS family share the same qualitative properties, their individual values can differ strongly, for example, the spin-orbit splitting in WSe2 reaches the value of 428 meV, nearly three times that of MoS2. Further, we discuss the effect of strain on the electronic properties (straintronics). While MoWSeS single layers are very robust against external electric fields, bilayers show a linear reduction of the band gap, even reaching a semiconductor-metal phase transition, and an increase of the spin-orbit splitting from zero to the monolayer value at rather small fields. Strain is yet another possibility to control the band gap in a linear way, and MoWSeS monolayers become metallic at strain values of ∼10%. The density-functional based tight-binding model is a useful tool to investigate the electronic and structural properties, including electron conductance, of large MoS2 structures, which show spontaneous rippling in finite-temperature molecular dynamics simulations. Structural defects in MoS2 result in anisotropy of the electric conductivity. Finally, DFT predictions on the properties of noble metal dichalcogenides are presented. Most strikingly, 1T PdS2 is an indirect band gap semiconductor in its monolayer form but becomes metallic as a bilayer. (Figure Presented). © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: ERC-ADG | Phase: ERC-ADG-2015 | Award Amount: 2.31M | Year: 2016

Dynamical systems play an important role all over science, from celestial mechanics, evolution biology and economics to mathematics. Specifically holomorphic dynamics has been credited as straddling the traditional borders between pure and applied mathematics. Activities of numerous top-level mathematicians, including Fields medalists and Abel laureates, demonstrate the attractivity of holomorphic dynamics as an active and challenging research field. We propose to work on a research project based in holomorphic dynamics that actively connects to adjacent mathematical fields. We work on four closely connected Themes: A. we develop a classification of holomorphic dynamical systems and a Rigidity Principle, proposing the view that many of the additional challenges of non-polynomial rational maps are encoded in the simpler polynomial setting; B. we advance Thurstons fundamental characterization theorem of rational maps and his lamination theory to the world of transcendental maps, developing a novel way of understanding of spaces of iterated polynomials and transcendental maps; C. we develop an extremely efficient polynomial root finder based on Newtons method that turns the perceived problem of chaotic dynamics into an advantage, factorizing polynomials of degree several million in a matter of minutes rather than months and providing a family of rational maps that are highly susceptible to combinatorial analysis, leading the way for an understanding of more general maps; D. and we connect this to geometric group theory via Iterated Monodromy Groups, an innovative concept that helps solve dynamical questions in terms of their group structure, and that contributes to geometric group theory by providing natural classes of groups with properties that used to be thought of as exotic.

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