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Grinberg N.,Jacobs Institute | Grinberg N.,Facebook Inc. | Kalyanaraman S.,Facebook Inc. | Adamic L.A.,Facebook Inc. | Naaman M.,Jacobs Institute
Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW | Year: 2017

When people share updates with their friends on Facebook they have varying expectations for the feedback they will receive. In this study, we quantitatively examine the factors contributing to feedback expectations and the potential outcomes of expectation fulfillment. We conducted two sets of surveys: one asking people about their feedback expectations immediately after posting on Facebook and the other asking how the amount of feedback received on a post matched the participant's expectations. Participants were more likely to expect feedback on content they evaluated as more important, and to a lesser extent more personal. Expectations also depended on participants' age, gender, and level of activity on Facebook. When asked about feedback expectations from specific friends, participants were more likely to expect feedback from closer friends, but expectations varied considerably based on recency of communication, geographical proximity, and the type of relationship (e.g. family, co-worker). Finally, receiving more feedback relative to expectations correlated with a greater feeling of connectedness to one's Facebook friends. The findings suggest implications for the theory and the design of social network sites. © 2017 ACM.


Mokin M.,University of South Florida | Nagesh S.V.S.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Ionita C.N.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Siddiqui A.H.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Siddiqui A.H.,Jacobs Institute
Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery | Year: 2016

Background Recently, an in vitro cerebrovascular occlusion model of the intracranial circulation was developed for testing thrombectomy devices. The Cover accessory (Lazarus Effect; Campbell, California, USA) is a novel nitinol braided mesh device that surrounds the stent retrieval device and thrombus during the retrieval process to help prevent clot fragmentation and embolization. Methods Using the in vitro model, after introducing fresh clot into the middle cerebral artery, we compared rates of target vessel recanalization and embolization in new territories (areas in which clot had not been introduced) achieved with the Solitaire Flow Restoration (FR) stent retriever (Covidien, Irvine, California) in conjunction with the use of a conventional guide catheter (control group), a balloon guide catheter (BGC group), and the Cover device (Cover group). Results In a total of 51 thrombectomy experiments (20 in the control group, 20 in the BGC group, and 11 in the Cover group), successful recanalization (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b-3) was achieved more frequently in the Cover group than in the control group or in the BGC group (p=0.047 and p=0.020, respectively). Embolization of new ( previously unaffected) territories occurred in five (25%) experiments from the control group and in three (15%) experiments from the BGC group, whereas no embolization of new territories was seen with Cover device assisted thrombectomy. Conclusions Application of the Cover device in this experimental model resulted in higher successful recanalization rates, no embolic events, and was more effective than use of the conventional guide catheter or BGC.


News Article | March 4, 2016
Site: phys.org

Diagnostic health care is often restricted in areas with limited resources, because the procedures required to detect many of the molecular markers that can diagnose diseases are too complex or expensive to be used outside of a central laboratory. Researchers in the lab of Rustem Ismagilov, Caltech's Ethel Wilson Bowles and Robert Bowles Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and director of the Jacobs Institute for Molecular Engineering for Medicine, are inventing new technologies to help bring emerging diagnostic capabilities out of laboratories and to the point of care. Among the important requirements for such diagnostic devices is that the results—or readouts—be robust against a variety of environmental conditions and user errors.


News Article | November 24, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A new study is the first to show that living organisms can be persuaded to make silicon-carbon bonds--something only chemists had done before. Scientists at Caltech "bred" a bacterial protein to make the man-made bonds--a finding that has applications in several industries. Molecules with silicon-carbon, or organosilicon, compounds are found in pharmaceuticals as well as in many other products, including agricultural chemicals, paints, semiconductors, and computer and TV screens. Currently, these products are made synthetically, since the silicon-carbon bonds are not found in nature. The new study demonstrates that biology can instead be used to manufacture these bonds in ways that are more environmentally friendly and potentially much less expensive. "We decided to get nature to do what only chemists could do--only better," says Frances Arnold, Caltech's Dick and Barbara Dickinson Professor of Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering and Biochemistry, and principal investigator of the new research, published in the Nov. 24 issue of the journal Science. The study is also the first to show that nature can adapt to incorporate silicon into carbon-based molecules, the building blocks of life. Scientists have long wondered if life on Earth could have evolved to be based on silicon instead of carbon. Science-fiction authors likewise have imagined alien worlds with silicon-based life, like the lumpy Horta creatures portrayed in an episode of the 1960s TV series Star Trek. Carbon and silicon are chemically very similar. They both can form bonds to four atoms simultaneously, making them well suited to form the long chains of molecules found in life, such as proteins and DNA. "No living organism is known to put silicon-carbon bonds together, even though silicon is so abundant, all around us, in rocks and all over the beach," says Jennifer Kan, a postdoctoral scholar in Arnold's lab and lead author of the new study. Silicon is the second most abundant element in Earth's crust. The researchers used a method called directed evolution, pioneered by Arnold in the early 1990s, in which new and better enzymes are created in labs by artificial selection, similar to the way that breeders modify corn, cows, or cats. Enzymes are a class of proteins that catalyze, or facilitate, chemical reactions. The directed evolution process begins with an enzyme that scientists want to enhance. The DNA coding for the enzyme is mutated in more-or-less random ways, and the resulting enzymes are tested for a desired trait. The top-performing enzyme is then mutated again, and the process is repeated until an enzyme that performs much better than the original is created. Directed evolution has been used for years to make enzymes for household products, like detergents; and for "green" sustainable routes to making pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, and fuels. In the new study, the goal was not just to improve an enzyme's biological function but to actually persuade it to do something that it had not done before. The researchers' first step was to find a suitable candidate, an enzyme showing potential for making the silicon-carbon bonds. "It's like breeding a racehorse," says Arnold, who is also the director of the Donna and Benjamin M. Rosen Bioengineering Center at Caltech. "A good breeder recognizes the inherent ability of a horse to become a racer and has to bring that out in successive generations. We just do it with proteins." The ideal candidate turned out to be a protein from a bacterium that grows in hot springs in Iceland. That protein, called cytochrome c, normally shuttles electrons to other proteins, but the researchers found that it also happens to act like an enzyme to create silicon-carbon bonds at low levels. The scientists then mutated the DNA coding for that protein within a region that specifies an iron-containing portion of the protein thought to be responsible for its silicon-carbon bond-forming activity. Next, they tested these mutant enzymes for their ability to make organosilicon compounds better than the original. After only three rounds, they had created an enzyme that can selectively make silicon-carbon bonds 15 times more efficiently than the best catalyst invented by chemists. Furthermore, the enzyme is highly selective, which means that it makes fewer unwanted byproducts that have to be chemically separated out. "This iron-based, genetically encoded catalyst is nontoxic, cheaper, and easier to modify compared to other catalysts used in chemical synthesis," says Kan. "The new reaction can also be done at room temperature and in water." The synthetic process for making silicon-carbon bonds often uses precious metals and toxic solvents, and requires extra processing to remove unwanted byproducts, all of which add to the cost of making these compounds. As to the question of whether life can evolve to use silicon on its own, Arnold says that is up to nature. "This study shows how quickly nature can adapt to new challenges," she says. "The DNA-encoded catalytic machinery of the cell can rapidly learn to promote new chemical reactions when we provide new reagents and the appropriate incentive in the form of artificial selection. Nature could have done this herself if she cared to." The Science paper, titled "Directed Evolution of Cytochrome c for Carbon-Silicon Bond Formation: Bringing Silicon to Life," is also authored by Russell Lewis and Kai Chen of Caltech. The research is funded by the National Science Foundation, the Caltech Innovation Initiative program, and the Jacobs Institute for Molecular Engineering for Medicine at Caltech.


News Article | November 28, 2016
Site: astrobiology.com

A new study is the first to show that living organisms can be persuaded to make silicon-carbon bonds--something only chemists had done before. Scientists at Caltech "bred" a bacterial protein to have the ability to make the man-made bonds, a finding that has applications in several industries. Molecules with silicon-carbon, or organosilicon, compounds are found in pharmaceuticals as well as in many other products, including agricultural chemicals, paints, semiconductors, and computer and TV screens. Currently, these products are made synthetically, since the silicon-carbon bonds are not found in nature. The new research, which recently won Caltech's Dow Sustainability Innovation Student Challenge Award (SISCA) grand prize, demonstrates that biology can instead be used to manufacture these bonds in ways that are more environmentally friendly and potentially much less expensive. "We decided to get nature to do what only chemists could do--only better," says Frances Arnold, Caltech's Dick and Barbara Dickinson Professor of Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering and Biochemistry, and principal investigator of the new research, published in the Nov. 24 issue of the journal Science. The study is also the first to show that nature can adapt to incorporate silicon into carbon-based molecules, the building blocks of life. Scientists have long wondered if life on Earth could have evolved to be based on silicon instead of carbon. Science-fiction authors likewise have imagined alien worlds with silicon-based life, like the lumpy Horta creatures portrayed in an episode of the 1960s TV series Star Trek. Carbon and silicon are chemically very similar. They both can form bonds to four atoms simultaneously, making them well suited to form the long chains of molecules found in life, such as proteins and DNA. "No living organism is known to put silicon-carbon bonds together, even though silicon is so abundant, all around us, in rocks and all over the beach," says Jennifer Kan, a postdoctoral scholar in Arnold's lab and lead author of the new study. Silicon is the second most abundant element in Earth's crust. The researchers used a method called directed evolution, pioneered by Arnold in the early 1990s, in which new and better enzymes are created in labs by artificial selection, similar to the way that breeders modify corn, cows, or cats. Enzymes are a class of proteins that catalyze, or facilitate, chemical reactions. The directed evolution process begins with an enzyme that scientists want to enhance. The DNA coding for the enzyme is mutated in more-or-less random ways, and the resulting enzymes are tested for a desired trait. The top-performing enzyme is then mutated again, and the process is repeated until an enzyme that performs much better than the original is created. Directed evolution has been used for years to make enzymes for household products, like detergents; and for "green" sustainable routes to making pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, and fuels. In the new study, the goal was not just to improve an enzyme's biological function but to actually persuade it to do something that it had not done before. The researchers' first step was to find a suitable candidate, an enzyme showing potential for making the silicon-carbon bonds. "It's like breeding a racehorse," says Arnold, who is also the director of the Donna and Benjamin M. Rosen Bioengineering Center at Caltech. "A good breeder recognizes the inherent ability of a horse to become a racer and has to bring that out in successive generations. We just do it with proteins." The ideal candidate turned out to be a protein from a bacterium that grows in hot springs in Iceland. That protein, called cytochrome c, normally shuttles electrons to other proteins, but the researchers found that it also happens to act like an enzyme to create silicon-carbon bonds at low levels. The scientists then mutated the DNA coding for that protein within a region that specifies an iron-containing portion of the protein thought to be responsible for its silicon-carbon bond-forming activity. Next, they tested these mutant enzymes for their ability to make organosilicon compounds better than the original. After only three rounds, they had created an enzyme that can selectively make silicon-carbon bonds 15 times more efficiently than the best catalyst invented by chemists. Furthermore, the enzyme is highly selective, which means that it makes fewer unwanted byproducts that have to be chemically separated out. "This iron-based, genetically encoded catalyst is nontoxic, cheaper, and easier to modify compared to other catalysts used in chemical synthesis," says Kan. "The new reaction can also be done at room temperature and in water." The synthetic process for making silicon-carbon bonds often uses precious metals and toxic solvents, and requires extra processing to remove unwanted byproducts, all of which add to the cost of making these compounds. As to the question of whether life can evolve to use silicon on its own, Arnold says that is up to nature. "This study shows how quickly nature can adapt to new challenges," she says. "The DNA-encoded catalytic machinery of the cell can rapidly learn to promote new chemical reactions when we provide new reagents and the appropriate incentive in the form of artificial selection. Nature could have done this herself if she cared to." The Science paper, titled "Directed Evolution of Cytochrome c for Carbon-Silicon Bond Formation: Bringing Silicon to Life," is also authored by Russell Lewis and Kai Chen of Caltech. The research is funded by the National Science Foundation, the Caltech Innovation Initiative program, and the Jacobs Institute for Molecular Engineering for Medicine at Caltech.


On November 16, four female founders of leading digital health startups will share the stage at a special panel discussion hosted by Nestlé Skin Health SHIELD (Skin Health Investigation, Education, Longevity Development) and the New York chapter of the Women’s Dermatologic Society (WDS). In a session moderated by Galderma patent attorney Jessica Mikus, the speakers will share their insights into what it takes to build a successful business in digital health. The WDS was founded in direct response to the lack of women’s voices at meetings of the American Academy of Dermatology in the 1970s, and has since grown from a handful of doctors to more than 1,300 members in 33 countries. “Although women are increasingly represented in the field of dermatology, few are active in digital health,” said Dr. Jeannette Jakus of the Women’s Dermatologic Society. “As we live longer lives, the need is growing for creative innovation to ensure that our skin remains healthy throughout our lives. This discussion is an important first step toward fostering greater involvement of female dermatologists in digital health.” The speakers will offer an inside look into the world of health technology and candidly discuss the challenges and the triumphs they experience as female entrepreneurs in a traditionally male-dominated space, addressing what the Clinton Foundation has referred to as “a concerning lack of women’s leadership” in the field. The speakers include: Ms. Arthur is a successful therapist, entrepreneur and women’s advocate. Her passion for the field of psychotherapy led her to start two wellness-based businesses and a private counseling practice, all before the age of 30. She built In Your Corner into global enterprise that helped thousands of people receive therapy online. Dr. Miranda has been in the mental health and wellness field for over 10 years. She is a co-founder and the chief clinical officer of Psocratic, a data-driven organizational wellness company. Dr. Nguyen founded Innovatively, a technology startup that helps today’s healthcare and life science businesses fill information gaps and assess new opportunities. She developed the platform at the Jacobs Institute at Cornell. Ms. Powell founded Sodium Analyte Level Test (S.A.L.T.), a startup launching the first portable device to measure daily salt intake, without a lab. She is a Biomedical Sciences PhD candidate at Weill Cornell Medicine, where she launched S.A.L.T. “SHIELD is proud to partner with WDS to bring together visionary leaders from different disciplines to learn from one another,” said Dr. Warren Winkelman, Senior Medical Director of SHIELD. “We hope that this discussion with these extraordinary entrepreneurs will inspire creative and bold thinking and perhaps be the starting point for digital skin health innovations of tomorrow.” About SHIELD SHIELD is a global network of innovation and education hubs gathering today’s most creative and visionary thinkers from diverse disciplines to generate, develop and incubate ideas to advance skin health for tomorrow. SHIELD explores creative partnerships, new concepts and technologies to help preserve lifelong skin health, mitigate the emergence of skin conditions and integrate the skin dimension into the organization of age-friendly cities. About the WDS The Women's Dermatologic Society, founded in 1973, is dedicated to helping dermatologists fulfill their greatest potential and assisting them in making a contribution to our specialty and society. The mission of the WDS is to be the premier organization cultivating personal and professional development of dermatologists dedicated to excellence in patient care, mentorship, volunteerism, and leadership.


SANTA ROSA, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Claret Medical® today announced that in an open public hearing of the FDA’s Circulatory System Devices Panel last week, virtually all panel members recommended the de novo application of the Sentinel® Cerebral Protection System (CPS) be granted, which would enable US commercialization of the device. The American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) and the Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery (SNIS) also endorsed the need for embolic protection in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), and were represented in the open public hearing by Adnan Siddiqui, MD, PhD, professor of neurological surgery at the University of Buffalo and chief medical officer at the Jacobs Institute. The Sentinel CPS is the only device designed to protect the brain by capturing and removing debris dislodged during TAVR that would otherwise enter the cerebral circulation and increase the potential for stroke. A formal vote was not taken as the Sentinel CPS is a medium risk accessory device reviewed as a de novo application. “The Sentinel device has shown its potential, across multiple trials, to filter and remove brain-borne debris safely, with very few vascular complications,” said Martin Leon, MD, of Columbia University Medical Center/New York-Presbyterian Hospital, and chairman of the SENTINEL Clinical Steering Committee. “When we see the size and heterogeneity of the material captured, it is reassuring for me as a practicing TAVR implanter to know that it can be removed from the patient’s vasculature before it reaches the brain.“ In the landmark SENTINEL pivotal trial, the primary safety endpoint of MACCE at 30 days was met, with reported MACCE in the protected Sentinel group at 7.3 percent, significantly lower than the pre-specified historical performance goal of 18.3 percent and the rate of 9.9 percent seen in the control arm. The stroke rate for Sentinel-protected patients was 5.6 percent versus 9.1 percent for unprotected patients. Importantly, the observed peri-procedural stroke rate – encompassing 72 hours’ post-procedure – was reduced by 63 percent, from 8.2 percent for unprotected patients to 3.0 percent for protected patients. In the trial, device delivery and retrieval were accomplished safely and successfully in 99.6 percent of cases. The Sentinel access site complication rate was only 0.4 percent. The device captured and removed embolic debris in 99 percent of patients in the study, with one in four patients having more than 25 pieces of debris with a size greater than, or equal to, 0.5 millimeters captured in the filters. A meta-analysis of five randomized controlled clinical trials examining cerebral protection in valve repair and replacement procedures across more than 625 patients was published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC) in January. More than 80 percent of the patients (510 subjects) came from three of the five cited studies where Claret Medical’s dual-filter cerebral protection systems were used. These data demonstrate that the use of cerebral protection is associated with a greater than 40 percent lower risk of death or stroke after TAVR. The data corresponded to a rate of one death or stroke potentially being averted for every 22 patients treated with cerebral protection. “We were extremely pleased with the near unanimous recommendation of the committee based on consideration of the totality of the clinical evidence that we have generated over the past six years. This strong support was based on the excellent safety profile and ability of the Sentinel CPS to reduce cerebral insults,” said Claret Medical President and Chief Executive Officer Azin Parhizgar, PhD. “The panel provided valuable feedback that will help define future study success criteria in the field of cerebral protection. We look forward to working collaboratively and diligently with the US FDA in the coming weeks to ensure that we can bring the Sentinel technology to American physicians and their patients.” The Sentinel CPS is the most-studied device in the field of TAVR cerebral protection, having been systematically evaluated in three randomized controlled trials involving more than 600 patients. More than 3,250 patients worldwide have been protected with the device to-date. A privately-held company, Claret Medical is the leader in the field of cerebral protection and the first to have filed an FDA application for entering the US market. The company develops innovative solutions for cerebral protection during structural heart interventions, vascular interventions, and cardiac surgery procedures. The company is currently focusing product development and clinical research on addressing the problem of stroke during TAVR, a significant unmet clinical need. For more information: www.claretmedical.com. CAUTION: Investigational Device. Limited by United States law to investigational use. Claret Medical and Sentinel are trademarks of Claret Medical, Inc.


Lin N.,University at Buffalo Neurosurgery | Brouillard A.M.,University at Buffalo Neurosurgery | Krishna C.,Gates Vascular Institute Kaleida Health | Mokin M.,State University of New York at Buffalo | And 5 more authors.
Neurosurgery | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Coiling in conjunction with Pipeline embolization device (PED) placement could provide immediate dome protection and an intraaneurysmal scaffold to prevent device prolapse for intracranial aneurysms with high rupture risk and complex anatomy. OBJECTIVE: To report results after treatment of aneurysms with PED with coils (PED1coils group) or without (PED-only group) at a single-institution. METHODS: In this case-controlled study, records of patients who underwent PED treatment between 2011 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients were treated with PED1coils and 75 with PED-only. No statistically significant between-group differences were found in terms of age, sex, aneurysm location, medical comorbidities, and length of follow-up. Aneurysms treated by PED1coils were larger (16.3 mm vs 12.4 mm, P = .02) and more likely to be ruptured (20.7% vs 1.3%, P = .001) or dissecting (34.5% vs 9.3%, P = .002). PED deployment was successful in all cases. At the latest follow-up (mean, 7.8 months), complete aneurysm occlusion was achieved in a higher proportion of the PED1coils group (93.1% vs 74.7%, P = .03). Device foreshortening/migration occurred in 4 patients in the PED-only group and none in the PED1coils group. Fewer patients required retreatment in the PED1coils group (3.4% vs 16.0%, P = .71). Rates of neurological complications (10.3% PED1coils vs 8.0% PED-only, P = .7) and favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score = 0-2; 93.1% PED1coils vs 94.7% PED-only, P = .6) were similar. CONCLUSION: PED1coils may be a safe and effective treatment for aneurysms with high risk of rupture (or rerupture) and complex anatomy. Coiling in conjunction with PED placement provided a higher aneurysm occlusion rate and reduced the need for retreatment. Copyright © 2014 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.


Mokin M.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Setlur Nagesh S.V.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Ionita C.N.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Levy E.I.,State University of New York at Buffalo | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Neuroradiology | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A new in vitro cerebrovascular occlusion model of the intracranial circulation was developed recently for testing thrombectomy devices. Using this model, we compared recanalization success associated with different modern endovascular thrombectomy approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Model experiments were performed in 4 thrombectomy test groups: 1) primary or direct Stentriever thrombectomy with a conventional guide catheter (control group), 2) primary Stentriever thrombectomy with a balloon-guide catheter, 3) combined Stentriever- continuous aspiration approach, and 4) direct aspiration alone. Successful recanalization was defined as a TICI score of 2b or 3. RESULTS: Seventy-one thrombectomy experiments were conducted. Similar rates of TICI 2b-3 scores were achieved with balloon-guide and conventional guide catheters (P = .34). The combined Stentriever plus aspiration approach and the primary aspiration thrombectomy resulted in significantly higher rates of TICI 2b or 3 than the conventional guide-catheter approach in the control group (P = .008 and P = .0001, respectively). The primary Stentriever thrombectomy with the conventional guide catheter showed the highest rate of embolization to new territories (53%). CONCLUSIONS: Data from our in vitro model experiments show that the Stentriever thrombectomy under continuous aspiration and primary aspiration thrombectomy approaches led to the highest degree of recanalization. © 2015, American Society of Neuroradiology. All rights reserved.


Kanza Y.,Jacobs Institute | Samet H.,University of Maryland College Park
GIS: Proceedings of the ACM International Symposium on Advances in Geographic Information Systems | Year: 2015

When recording their GPS trajectories or posting geo-tagged content on social networks, people produce social spatio-temporal data that can be stored and shared, namely geosocial data. Much of these spatio-temporal data can be used by organizations and applications, for statistical analysis or to provide services that are based on data. By letting people sell the data they produce, to different consumers, both sides can benefit. Thus, we present here a visionary idea of a geosocial marketplace where people and organizations can sell, buy and exchange geosocial data, that is, trade with spatio-temporal data pertaining people. We discuss the involved challenges, such as how to define supply and demand, pricing data, privacy issues and measuring the amount of data being exchanged. We explain the importance of the approach and its applicability. We believe that the proposed vision could motivate followup research in the area of sharing and exchanging spatio-temporal data as well as determining appropriate price points.

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