Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., is an international engineering, architecture, and construction firm with offices located around the world. As a publicly traded company with 66,000 employees and 2014 revenues of more than $12 billion, Jacobs offers support to industrial, commercial, and government clients across multiple markets. In 2014, Jacobs was named by Forbes as one of America's 100 Most Trustworthy Companies. Annual revenues have made Jacobs Engineering a Fortune 500 Company. Wikipedia.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 2.24M | Year: 2011
The U.K. population is projected to reach 80 million by 2050 and it is anticipated that the overwhelming majority will continue to live in cities. Besides becoming more densely populated, future cities will be surrounded with expanding urban areas. Interactions within cities; across urban areas and with surrounding cities, towns and rural areas with the rest of the UK will place new and different demands on infrastructure, whether housing, energy, transport, freight distribution and disposal of waste. Decisions that are made now will have profound implications for the resultant pressures on transport, living space, energy use, and ecosystem services (the benefits humans receive from ecosystems). These decisions will play out at two fundamentally different spatial scales. First, and by far the better understood, are those decisions that concern individual households and their neighbourhoods. These include issues of how their members move around, what kinds of housing they occupy, how their energy demands and waste production are reduced, and how their negative influences on the wider environment generally will be limited. Second, broad scale strategic decisions regarding regional planning will determine where in the U.K. population growth is primarily accommodated. This will determine, and be shaped by, the kinds of transport and energy infrastructure required, and the environmental impacts. Obviously these two sets of decisions are not independent. The demands for and impacts of broad scale development (whether this be the creation of new urban areas or the intensification of existing ones) - and thus how this is best achieved to deliver sustainability- will be influenced not by the typical demands and impacts exhibited now by households, but by the way in which these have been changed in response to the modification to the associated infrastructure. This makes for a challenging problem in predicting and evaluating the possible consequences of different potential scenarios of regional development. The proposed study SElf Conserving URban Environments (SECURE) will address this grand challenge of integration across scales (the global aim) by developing a range of future regional urbanization scenarios, and exploring their consequences for selected high profile issues of resource demand and provision (transport, dwellings, energy, and ecosystem services) alongside sustainable waste utilisations. In doing so, it will build on findings of research outputs of several previous SUE projects and harness its relationship in the context of policy and economic growth. The study includes specific research objectives under five broad cross-cutting themes - Urbanisation, Ecosystems Services, Building and Energy, Stakeholder Engagement and Policy Integration across themes. SECURE is designed to assemble novel deliverables to bring about step change in current knowledge and practice. The North East Region will be used as a test bed and evaluation of transitional scenarios leading up to 2050 will quantify the benefits of integration across the scales through conservation across the themes. SECURE will deliver policy formulation and planning decisions for 2030 and 2050 with a focus on creating Sustainable Urban Environment.The contributors to this project are researchers of international standings who have collaborated extensively on several EPSRC funded projects, including the SUE research since its inception. The SECURE team builds on their current collaboration on the SUE2 4M project. The Project consortium is led by Newcastle - Prof Margaret Bell as PI and Dr Anil Namdeo as co-ordinator alongside Dr Jenny Brake with academic partners: Prof David Graham (Environmental Engineering), Prof David Manning (Geosciences); from Loughborough: Prof Kevin Lomas, Prof Jonathan Wright and Dr Steven Firth (Civil and Building Engineering); from Sheffield: Prof Kevin Gaston and Dr Jonathan Leake (Animal and Plant Sciences).
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SST.2011.5.2-6. | Award Amount: 4.33M | Year: 2011
Growth in demand for rail transportation across Europe is predicted to continue. Much of this growth will have to be accommodated on existing lines that contain old infrastructure. This demand will increase both the rate of deterioration of these elderly assets and the need for shorter line closures for maintenance or renewal interventions. However, interventions on elderly infrastructure will also need to take account of the need for lower economic and environmental impacts. This means that new interventions will need to be developed. In addition tools will need to be developed to inform decision makers about the economic and environmental consequences of different intervention options being considered. MAINLINE proposes to address all these issues through a series of linked work packages that will target at least 300m per year savings across Europe with a reduced environmental footprint in terms of embodied carbon and other environmental benefits. It will: - Apply new technologies to extend the life of elderly infrastructure - Improve degradation and structural models to develop more realistic life cycle cost and safety models - Investigate new construction methods for the replacement of obsolete infrastructure - Investigate monitoring techniques to complement or replace existing examination techniques - Develop management tools to assess whole life environmental and economic impact. The consortium includes leading railways, contractors, consultants and researchers from across Europe, including from both Eastern Europe and the emerging economies. Partners also bring experience on approaches used in other industry sectors which have relevance to the rail sector. Project benefits will come from keeping existing infrastructure safely in service through the application of technologies and interventions based on life cycle considerations. Although MAINLINE will focus on certain asset types, the management tools developed will be applicable across a broader asset base.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 1.94M | Year: 2013
The increasing amounts of renewable energy present on the national grid reduce C02 emissions caused by electrical power but they fit into an electrical grid designed for fossil fuels. Fossil fuels can be turned on and off at will and so are very good at matching variations in load. Renewable energy in the form of wind turbines is more variable (although that variability is much more predictable than most people think) and there is a need for existing power plants to operate much more flexibly to accommodate the changing power output from wind, tidal and solar power. This work brings together five leading Universities in the UK and a number of industrial partners to make conventional power plants more flexible. The research covers a wide range of activities from detailed analysis of power station parts to determine how they will respond to large changes in load all the way up to modelling of the UK electrical network on a national level which informs us as to the load changes which conventional power plants will need to supply. The research work is divided up into a number of workpackages for which each University is responsible together they contribute to four major themes in the proposal: Maintaining Plant Efficiency, Improving Plant Flexibility, Increasing Fuel Flexibility and Delivering Sustainability. Cambridge University will be conducting research into wet steam methods. Water is used as the working fluid in power plant as it has excellent heat transfer properties. However in the cold end of power extraction turbine the steam starts to condense into water and droplets form this is especially a problem at part load. The work at Cambridge will allow this process to be predicted better and lead to better designs. Durham University will contribute two different work packages: modelling work of the entire UK power system and the introduction of the worlds first dynamically controlled clearance seal. The modelling work will enable the requirements for plant flexibility to be determined accurately. The dynamic seal developed in conjunction with a major UK manufacturer will allow the turbine to maintain performance as the load varies. Oxford University - Improved Heat Transfer Methods for Turbine Design. The output from this work will be a highly accurate coupled fluid flow and heat transfer calculations that will enable designers to better predict the thermal transients inside power stations. Leeds and Edinburgh University will lead work on increasing the use of biomass fuels. The modelling work at Leeds will allow plant operators to devise suitable measures to minimise the environmental impact of burning biomass. Leeds and Edinburgh University will contribute the development of a Virtual Power Plant Simulation Tool This work acts as a bridge between the different project partners as inputs from the models produced at Durham, Cambridge, Oxford and Leeds are combined. This tool based on the latest research findings can be used to optimize transient operations such as fast start-up and load following as wind turbine output varies.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME-AG | Phase: SME-2011-2 | Award Amount: 2.59M | Year: 2012
Current wind turbine condition monitoring methodologies can be time-consuming and a costly process and fail to achieve the reliability and operational efficiency required by the industry. For these reasons existing vibration-based Condition Monitoring System (CMS) usually fail to detect defects until they become critical. This project will show the applicability of the CMS enabling the prompt detection of defects. The proposal idea is to use this experience to deploy an existing system that: o Allows an early detection and identification of any developing defects on several components of the wind turbine such as blade cracking, slip-ring corrosion and shaft/bearing misalignment, thus helping to optimise the maintenance schedule. o Combine the use of several sensors in order to evaluate the overall operational condition of the turbines generator, gearbox bearings, main shaft and blades. o Use wireless sensor for rotating components monitoring using high performance powering and energy harvesting technologies. o Fuse and analyse the data obtained through the different sensors using a single SCADA system. Broadband radio transmission systems were developed to transmit the data from fixed or rotating frames to the ground without losing any signal resolution. The results indicate the feasibility of collecting AE signals from the rotating frame with acceptable level of noise in low to moderate wind speeds. Also other developments were executed in order to verify whether or not the noise level increases appreciably with wind speed and whether such signals can be filtered out. Application of CMSWind system: The Gearbox (including Main bearing, Yaw System, The hub) The Generator The Bolting One of the aims of this project is to develop new standards and procedures for applying offshore instrumentation and therefore providing generic developments and information of use to the whole Wind Energy and NDT industry.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2012.2.3.2 | Award Amount: 5.65M | Year: 2013
The power output from wind turbines has increased dramatically over the past thirty years from 50 kW to 6 MW, while 8-12 MW turbines are in the stage of design. State-of-the-art condition monitoring systems, such as vibration-based systems and temperature sensors, are able to monitor and evaluate the current condition of components of interest. Nonetheless, varying wind loads can result in the generation of false alarms or even misinterpretation of the data collected. In addition, commercially available condition monitoring systems offer no or very limited prognostics capability with regards to the remaining lifetime of a component before a serious fault occurs. Therefore evolution to predictive maintenance strategies is currently impossible. Experience has shown that by combining disparate data sources wind farm operators will be able to move from common reactive maintenance approach to a more cost effective risk-based operation and maintenance strategy with a high level of predictive maintenance scheduling. OPTIMUS will develop and demonstrate in the field novel methods and tools for prognosis of the remaining lifetime of key components based on data acquired by a cost-effective wind turbine condition monitoring system implemented by custom-designed dependable computing systems. This technology will reduce the total cost of energy and advance the deployment of large scale offshore and onshore wind energy by increasing availability and reducing downtime due to unplanned maintenance. Predictive maintenance will also reduce costs incurred from secondary damage to components and enable maintenance activities (and the associated costs) to be optimized with respect to forecast revenue from power generation. The results of this project will lead to a significant step-change over the current capability of commercial condition monitoring systems.
Teeling H.,Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology |
Glockner F.O.,Jacobs Engineering
Briefings in Bioinformatics | Year: 2012
Metagenomics has become an indispensable tool for studying the diversity and metabolic potential of environmental microbes, whose bulk is as yet non-cultivable. Continual progress in next-generation sequencing allows for generating increasingly large metagenomes and studying multiple metagenomes over time or space. Recently, a new type of holistic ecosystem study has emerged that seeks to combine metagenomics with biodiversity, meta-expression and contextual data. Such 'ecosystems biology' approaches bear the potential to not only advance our understanding of environmental microbes to a new level but also impose challenges due to increasing data complexities, in particular with respect to bioinformatic post-processing. This mini review aims to address selected opportunities and challenges of modern metagenomics from a bioinformatics perspective and hopefully will serve as a useful resource for microbial ecologists and bioinformaticians alike. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 486.20K | Year: 2011
The goal of this STTR Phase II program is to design, build, and evaluate the blast resistance of a prototype structure for a specific Navy lightweight tactical vehicle. The performance of the prototype will meet the program goal to be less than 10 lb/ft2, and to reduce the amount of transmitted impulse at least 30 percent compared to a monolithic metallic armor plate with the same areal density. The design success will be proved through blast simulator and field blast tests.
Mukhopadhyay B.,Jacobs Engineering
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2012
In river basins where melt water from snow and ice constitutes a dominant component of stream discharge during summer, degradation or reduction of perennial snow and ice covered areas (SCA P) has a profound effect on stream water availability in those basins. Degradation of SCA P that includes glaciers is a globally widespread phenomenon observed in the recently past decades; its cause has been attributed to global warming and its consequence is expected to dramatically alter the flow regimes of the rivers draining the terrains. The predicted change in flow regime is an initial increase in summer flows in the early decades of 21st century followed by sharp decline of the same during the later parts of the century. Estimation of SCA P within the Upper Indus Basin (UIB), straddling the western ranges of the Greater Himalayas, Karakoram Mountains, and the eastern mountain ranges of the Hindu Kush, shows that from 1992 to 2010 there has been about 2.15% reduction in SCA P. A spatially distributed basin-scale stream water availability model is presented to calculate monthly river discharges at critical hydrologic junctions within UIB. Model calculations for the years 1992, 2000, and 2008, show that due to the degradation of the SCA P within the basin, there has been significant decrease in summer discharges at various hydrologic junctions. The percentage decline in flows varies from 10% to 22%, depending on the locations of the junctions within the basin. The space-dependence of these variations reflects differential degradation of SCA P in various parts of the basin. Furthermore, the time of peak discharge at all of the hydrological junctions has shifted from middle/late summer to late spring/early summer as another outcome of SCA P reduction. Such temporal shifting of nival regimes to early part of warmer season has also been predicted by global warming models. However, the case study presented here for a major Himalayan river basin demonstrates that such shifting of peak discharge in the time domain can also take place simply due to retreat of the equilibrium line. Thus, the effects of a warming climate have possibly been already set within UIB. Instead of experiencing an increased pulse of summer flows for the next few decades, summer flows within this basin are expected to decline. Changes in the timing of peak flows can have adverse effects on multipurpose water resources management without appropriate adaptation and mitigation measures. Monthly average stream flow data with 35. year period of record from a key gauging station support the findings of the model results. Similarly, digital maps of SCA P at different time periods within a key catchment of UIB, containing one of the major glaciers, show retreat of glacial lobes and significant decrease in total SCA P taking place during the past decades. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Inman R.H.,Jacobs Engineering |
Pedro H.T.C.,Jacobs Engineering |
Coimbra C.F.M.,Jacobs Engineering
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science | Year: 2013
The higher penetration of renewable resources in the energy portfolios of several communities accentuates the need for accurate forecasting of variable resources (solar, wind, tidal) at several different temporal scales in order to achieve power grid balance. Solar generation technologies have experienced strong energy market growth in the past few years, with corresponding increase in local grid penetration rates. As is the case with wind, the solar resource at the ground level is highly variable mostly due to cloud cover variability, atmospheric aerosol levels, and indirectly and to a lesser extent, participating gases in the atmosphere. The inherent variability of solar generation at higher grid penetration levels poses problems associated with the cost of reserves, dispatchable and ancillary generation, and grid reliability in general. As a result, high accuracy forecast systems are required for multiple time horizons that are associated with regulation, dispatching, scheduling and unit commitment. Here we review the theory behind these forecasting methodologies, and a number of successful applications of solar forecasting methods for both the solar resource and the power output of solar plants at the utility scale level. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jacobs Engineering | Date: 2016-04-11
In the manufacture of phosphoric acid from ore, the typical ore comprises minerals containing phosphorus and calcium along with varied amounts of other elements. Certain ores have substantial iron content which needs to be removed in order to produce quality phosphoric acid product. An improved method and associated chemical processing plant are disclosed for removing this iron. The method involves both reducing and adding oxalic acid to wet process phosphoric acid produced using an otherwise conventional manufacturing process. Iron oxalate precipitate is created which can then conveniently be separated therefrom.