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Parise G.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Rifaat R.M.,Jacobs Canada Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications | Year: 2010

In electrical installations, each working zone and each source node present a kit of operating instructions as a logic gene. Previous papers have introduced a new approach and a language of a ternary code for operational procedures (Parise program). This paper deals with some comments on definitions and the syntax of the operational language. The same status of switching defines working zones or nodes by double operating value, free value, and packed value, thereby discriminating between decision and execution, and executed act from verification. The recommended command is a double click. The instructions have to be assembled like in a genetic cryptogram in the context of an electrical power system and of its architecture and constitution. They describe the complete and reversible evolution of the operational procedures for safe transition from a one set of switching configuration to another (waves of safe sets). Transitions maps are introduced to assist in the elaboration of operational procedures and to help the training of operators, their competence, and performance. These maps are specialized for the operational procedures more than the Karnaugh maps of digital electronics. On the basis of the logic gates, the basic equivalent mechanical connectives are defined to guide the operational procedures. A switching simulator based on electronic gates can be very useful for verifying the effects of any set of switching operations, adopting for commands the double click. © 2010 IEEE.


D'Mello M.,General Electric | Noonan M.,Suncor Energy | Aulakh H.,Jacobs Canada Inc. | Mirabent J.,Heavy Oil Business Unit
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications | Year: 2013

This paper discusses the use of high-speed circuit interruption to achieve extremely fast arcing fault clearance, resulting in a significant reduction of arc flash incident energy. High-speed interruptions can create problems such as loss of selectivity and unintended production losses. To prevent nuisance tripping, protective zones are created, and circuit breakers are assigned primary and backup protective zones. Circuit breakers use high-speed circuit interruption for faults within the primary protective zone, and their speed of operation is retarded or restrained for faults outside the primary protective zone. Waveform recognition of the fault current due to downstream current-limiting devices, where they exist, enables the protection zone to extend to downstream remote equipment. This paper concludes with a description of solutions used on two installations where the incident energy was reduced from a level of 'extremely dangerous' to a level much lower than that defined for 'everyday work clothing' personal protective equipment (PPE) (8cm 2). This reduction was achieved across three levels of equipment without compromising selectivity and, therefore, unnecessary outages. © 1972-2012 IEEE.


Aziz A.,Jacobs Canada Inc. | Jarrahi F.,University of Windsor | Abdul-Kader W.,University of Windsor
INFOR | Year: 2010

An approximation method based on discrete state Markov chain is developed to estimate the production rate of a series-parallel flow line with finite buffers. The proposed method's technique replaces a set of parallel machines at a work centre with an equivalent machine in order to obtain a traditional flow line with work centres in series separated by intermediate buffers. We derive equations for the parameters of the equivalent machine when it operates in isolation as well as in flow line. The few published analytical methods for series-parallel systems can tract only lines with a maximum of two work centres in series and a buffer in between them. Moreover, they are limited to estimate performance measures of flow lines composed only of identical machines in parallel. The proposed method, however, extends the aforementioned estimations for flow lines of any length with identical and/or non identical machines in parallel. Numerical examples are presented to show the applicability of the method where identical and non-identical parallel machine cases are considered and tackled. Copyright © 2010 INFOR.


Stefanovic R.,Fluor Corporation | Noman Y.,Jacobs Canada Inc.
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Transactions of the ASME | Year: 2012

The use of large, high pressure liquid petroleum gas (LPG) storage bullets has become a common, and often assumed safe, practice in the petrochemical industry. The Engineering Equipment and Materials Users Association (EEMUA) is an organization that has attempted to address design aspects related to mounded or buried bullets; Publication No. 190 published by the EEMUA (2000, Guide for the Design, Construction and Use of Mounded Horizontal Cylindrical Vessels for Pressurized Storage of LPG at Ambient Temperatures, EEMUA, London, England.) became a standard practice in the industry. However, the design recommended, and therefore addressed, by Publication 190 is for bullets directly supported by soil (i.e., without saddle supports). However, it has been noticed by the authors that many users are requesting these storage bullets be supported by saddles resting on foundations in order to minimize the chance of unexpected settling and any motion of the bullets underground. The large span of these bullets requires more than two saddles adding to the complexity of the design due to statically indeterminate construction, differential settlement, and uneven supports. This paper focuses on major issues related to the design of such bullets. First, the loads induced by mound weight, pressure due to mound, and the loads due to longitudinal thermal expansion and soil resistance to this expansion is analyzed. Next, a method for calculating the multiple saddle reactions and bending moments at spans and supports is provided. A simplified method for assessing the effect of differential settlement between saddles is proposed. © 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.


Zhou Z.A.,Alberta Innovates Technology Futures | Li H.,Alberta Innovates Technology Futures | Chow R.,Alberta Innovates Technology Futures | Roberge K.,Jacobs Canada Inc.
Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2013

Ore blending is a strategy developed in the oil sands industry to enhance bitumen recovery from low grade oil sands ores. It involves blending low grade ores with high grade ores at a certain ratio, resulting in a higher overall bitumen recovery from the mixture than the simple recovery summation of the two extracted separately. To understand the underlying mechanisms, both bitumen-coated glass beads (-150+125μm) and raw coal particles (-500+300, -300+150 and -150μm) were used as carrier materials in this study to simulate bitumen droplets from high grade ores. Experimental results revealed that coal particles were more efficient than hydrophobised bitumen-coated glass beads in accelerating bitumen recovery and that better bitumen extraction performance was obtained by using smaller sizes of coal. This was attributed to the gravitational effect of larger, heavier particles on the detachment of bitumen-particle aggregates from bubbles. For smaller sizes of coal (-150μm), a faster bitumen flotation recovery was achieved with more coal added. An increase in bitumen recovery up to 20-30% (absolute) was obtained by adding coal into the oil sands slurry. The interaction of bitumen with coal particles or bitumen-coated glass beads during oil sands slurry conditioning and flotation was visually verified from simple coagulation tests. The similarity of ore blending in oil sands extraction to carrier flotation in minerals flotation and the potential application of carrier flotation principles to oil sands extraction were discussed. © 2013 Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering.


Horner J.W.,Enbridge Inc. | DeBusman M.R.,Jacobs Canada Inc.
Proceedings of the Biennial International Pipeline Conference, IPC | Year: 2014

This paper reviews Enbridge's recent experience with the design and construction of new pump stations during its most recent wave of expansion that started in 2007. This expansion includes over $4 billion in pump station construction and upgrade. Enbridge is working on its third generation station design and is starting to benefit from a consistent design composed of standard elements. The principle objective of this design effort was to improve environmental protection at pump stations. In the design's development many different areas of concern were investigated including: building code compliance, pump shelter ventilation requirements, improvements to station metering accuracy, mitigations to improve fire safety, inclusion of an aboveground sump tank, and equipment access and removal to name a few. While work has been done to improve mechanical and structural systems, they have also been standardized in an attempt to develop consistent components. The objective of the paper is to provide a summary of these developments and some background on the thinking that shaped the design. Copyright © 2014 by ASME.


Mardegan C.S.,EngePower | Rifaat R.,Jacobs Canada Inc.
Conference Record - Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Technical Conference | Year: 2014

This paper intends to show some special topics on Ground Fault Protection (GFP). Single line-to-ground (LG) faults are the most common fault type, the protection engineer has to understand how often these occur, the nature and also the effects of a single phase arcing fault. System grounding also affects the magnitude of fault current, protective devices selection and settings. This paper discusses LG and associated issues such as transformer energization, line-charging current. Such considerations shall be addressed when setting grounding relays and to adopt the best LG protection practices. © 2014 IEEE.


Mardegan C.S.,EngePower | Rifaat R.,Jacobs Canada Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications | Year: 2015

This paper intends to show some special topics on ground-fault protection. Single-line-to-ground faults are the most common fault type, the protection engineer has to understand how often these occur, the nature, and also the effects of a single-phase arcing fault. System grounding also affects the magnitude of fault current, protective devices selection, and settings. This paper discusses line-to-ground (LG) and associated issues, such as transformer energization and line-charging current. Such considerations shall be addressed when setting grounding relays and to adopt the best LG protection practices. © 2015 IEEE.


Kumar D.,Jacobs Canada Inc. | Zhu J.,Jacobs Canada Inc. | Shin Y.,Jacobs Canada Inc.
NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series | Year: 2012

SAGD (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage) is one of the most important processes being used for extracting oil from Alberta's Oil Sands field. A typical SAGD facility in Alberta has several units that require careful potential corrosion evaluation and materials selection to ensure safety and integrity of the plant for full design life. These are (but not restricted to) well pads, bitumen treatment, deoiling, produced gas and evaporator systems. Many of these units are typical of SAGD and enough data on corrosion rates and materials performance may or may not be available. The major concerns that affect material selection in SAGD operations are carbon dioxide (CO 2) and hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) corrosion, high chlorides and total dissolved solids (TDS), oxygen ingress and operating temperature. For example, both well pads and bitumen treatment units are likely to see significant amounts of CO 2 and H 2S (with variation in percentages), high temperatures as well as considerable content of water and oil. High chlorides may also be present. Produced gas units will also have high levels of CO 2 and H 2S. Hence these units can witness high corrosion rates for carbon steel components particularly wherever conditions of two phase flow and/or high temperatures exist. High velocities may further complicate the condition. Deoiling systems may also have high levels of CO 2, particularly, where there is a possibility of gas breakout due to pressure drop. Oxygen ingress in deoiling systems can also cause increased corrosion rate for carbon steel components. Evaporator systems pose another challenge in material selection due to the presence of extremely high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS) up to 100,000 ppm and very high chlorides up to or greater than 40,000 ppm and normal materials of choice such as austenitic stainless steels may not have an acceptable life. This paper discusses some of the corrosion risks involved in various units and elaborates on authors' experience in materials selection for several new projects on designing SAGD plants. ©2012 by NACE International.


Rifaat R.,Jacobs Canada Inc. | Lally T.S.,Jacobs Canada Inc. | Hong J.,Jacobs Canada Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications | Year: 2014

The industrial distribution power systems in Northern Alberta supplies electrical energy to satellite locations and mining areas. In some aspects, these systems differ from their counterparts in regular utility distribution cases. Accordingly, they require special attention when performing transient recovery voltage (TRV) studies and identifying ratings for new breakers to be added to the system. Meanwhile, North American (IEEE) and European (IEC) Standards are embarking on significant efforts to harmonize breaker specifications and testing requirements, including TRV tests. An electromagnetic transient program (EMTP) study has been performed to verify system TRV requirements under different conditions against Standard requirements and supplier's provided test data. Concerns, lessons learned, and some other findings associated with the study are documented in this paper for future references and for advancing robust usage of EMTP (alternative transient program) for the performance of such studies for subtransmission and distribution systems in different electrical systems. © 2014 IEEE.

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