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Stefanovic R.,Fluor Corporation | Noman Y.,Jacobs Canada Inc.
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Transactions of the ASME | Year: 2012

The use of large, high pressure liquid petroleum gas (LPG) storage bullets has become a common, and often assumed safe, practice in the petrochemical industry. The Engineering Equipment and Materials Users Association (EEMUA) is an organization that has attempted to address design aspects related to mounded or buried bullets; Publication No. 190 published by the EEMUA (2000, Guide for the Design, Construction and Use of Mounded Horizontal Cylindrical Vessels for Pressurized Storage of LPG at Ambient Temperatures, EEMUA, London, England.) became a standard practice in the industry. However, the design recommended, and therefore addressed, by Publication 190 is for bullets directly supported by soil (i.e., without saddle supports). However, it has been noticed by the authors that many users are requesting these storage bullets be supported by saddles resting on foundations in order to minimize the chance of unexpected settling and any motion of the bullets underground. The large span of these bullets requires more than two saddles adding to the complexity of the design due to statically indeterminate construction, differential settlement, and uneven supports. This paper focuses on major issues related to the design of such bullets. First, the loads induced by mound weight, pressure due to mound, and the loads due to longitudinal thermal expansion and soil resistance to this expansion is analyzed. Next, a method for calculating the multiple saddle reactions and bending moments at spans and supports is provided. A simplified method for assessing the effect of differential settlement between saddles is proposed. © 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Source


Parise G.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Rifaat R.M.,Jacobs Canada Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications | Year: 2010

In electrical installations, each working zone and each source node present a kit of operating instructions as a logic gene. Previous papers have introduced a new approach and a language of a ternary code for operational procedures (Parise program). This paper deals with some comments on definitions and the syntax of the operational language. The same status of switching defines working zones or nodes by double operating value, free value, and packed value, thereby discriminating between decision and execution, and executed act from verification. The recommended command is a double click. The instructions have to be assembled like in a genetic cryptogram in the context of an electrical power system and of its architecture and constitution. They describe the complete and reversible evolution of the operational procedures for safe transition from a one set of switching configuration to another (waves of safe sets). Transitions maps are introduced to assist in the elaboration of operational procedures and to help the training of operators, their competence, and performance. These maps are specialized for the operational procedures more than the Karnaugh maps of digital electronics. On the basis of the logic gates, the basic equivalent mechanical connectives are defined to guide the operational procedures. A switching simulator based on electronic gates can be very useful for verifying the effects of any set of switching operations, adopting for commands the double click. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Mardegan C.S.,EngePower | Rifaat R.,Jacobs Canada Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications | Year: 2015

This paper intends to show some special topics on ground-fault protection. Single-line-to-ground faults are the most common fault type, the protection engineer has to understand how often these occur, the nature, and also the effects of a single-phase arcing fault. System grounding also affects the magnitude of fault current, protective devices selection, and settings. This paper discusses line-to-ground (LG) and associated issues, such as transformer energization and line-charging current. Such considerations shall be addressed when setting grounding relays and to adopt the best LG protection practices. © 2015 IEEE. Source


D'Mello M.,General Electric | Noonan M.,Suncor Energy | Aulakh H.,Jacobs Canada Inc. | Mirabent J.,Heavy Oil Business Unit
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications | Year: 2013

This paper discusses the use of high-speed circuit interruption to achieve extremely fast arcing fault clearance, resulting in a significant reduction of arc flash incident energy. High-speed interruptions can create problems such as loss of selectivity and unintended production losses. To prevent nuisance tripping, protective zones are created, and circuit breakers are assigned primary and backup protective zones. Circuit breakers use high-speed circuit interruption for faults within the primary protective zone, and their speed of operation is retarded or restrained for faults outside the primary protective zone. Waveform recognition of the fault current due to downstream current-limiting devices, where they exist, enables the protection zone to extend to downstream remote equipment. This paper concludes with a description of solutions used on two installations where the incident energy was reduced from a level of 'extremely dangerous' to a level much lower than that defined for 'everyday work clothing' personal protective equipment (PPE) (8cm 2). This reduction was achieved across three levels of equipment without compromising selectivity and, therefore, unnecessary outages. © 1972-2012 IEEE. Source


Horner J.W.,Enbridge Inc. | DeBusman M.R.,Jacobs Canada Inc.
Proceedings of the Biennial International Pipeline Conference, IPC | Year: 2014

This paper reviews Enbridge's recent experience with the design and construction of new pump stations during its most recent wave of expansion that started in 2007. This expansion includes over $4 billion in pump station construction and upgrade. Enbridge is working on its third generation station design and is starting to benefit from a consistent design composed of standard elements. The principle objective of this design effort was to improve environmental protection at pump stations. In the design's development many different areas of concern were investigated including: building code compliance, pump shelter ventilation requirements, improvements to station metering accuracy, mitigations to improve fire safety, inclusion of an aboveground sump tank, and equipment access and removal to name a few. While work has been done to improve mechanical and structural systems, they have also been standardized in an attempt to develop consistent components. The objective of the paper is to provide a summary of these developments and some background on the thinking that shaped the design. Copyright © 2014 by ASME. Source

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