J. Heineman Forestry Consulting

Vancouver, Canada

J. Heineman Forestry Consulting

Vancouver, Canada
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Newsome T.A.,Borland | Heineman J.L.,J. Heineman Forestry Consulting | Nemec A.F.L.,International Statistics and Research Corporation | Comeau P.G.,University of Alberta | And 2 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2010

We investigated survival and growth responses of planted and advance natural regeneration species of varying shade tolerance to partial retention harvesting in moist warm Interior Cedar-Hemlock (ICHmw2) and dry cool Montane Spruce (MSdk) ecosystems of southeastern British Columbia, Canada. Treatments included three levels of overstory basal area retention (none, light (∼25%), or heavy (∼50%)) installed by two harvest methods (handfelled or a pushover falling technique being tested for its ability to control the spread of root disease). After 10 years, growth of both planted and natural regeneration species of varying shade tolerance tended to increase with decreasing overstory retention and associated increases in light availability. In contrast, significant survival responses to retention level were lacking except in the case of shade-intolerant western larch. Harvest method had a variable effect on regeneration survival and growth. Where significant responses did occur, they were generally attributed to harvesting effects on the characteristics of planting microsites rather than root disease spread. Natural regeneration densities at the ICHmw2 site were high at all retention levels, whereas stocking was less consistent at the MSdk site. We concluded that moderately shade-tolerant to shade-tolerant interior spruce and western redcedar can, under conditions similar to those of our study sites, be successfully established under overstories of up to approximately 25 m2/ha basal area, but that growth performance is likely to be significantly lower than in clearcuts. Despite early survival issues, conclusions regarding Douglas-fir were similar. Poorer survival and vigour of shade-intolerant western larch suggested this species is not suitable for regeneration in partial retention systems where timber production is the primary objective. Where non-timber objectives predominate, survival and acceptable growth of even a small proportion of larch could add to the diversity of the regenerating stand. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Boateng J.O.,British Columbia Ministry of forests | Heineman J.L.,J. Heineman Forestry Consulting | Bedford L.,British Columbia Ministry of forests | Linnell Nemec A.F.,International Statistics and Research Corporation | And 2 more authors.
New Forests | Year: 2012

We examined the effects of various mechanical site preparation methods and windrow burning on container-grown planted lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) survival and growth for 20 years after treatment at a sub-boreal site in north-central British Columbia, Canada. Survival was uniformly high (≥80%) regardless of treatment, indicating that site preparation was not necessary to establish pine on this site. Significant treatment effects on height, diameter, and stem volume were present at all assessment dates, but only the windrow burning treatment was associated with growth gains over the untreated control after two decades. Pine planted at the disk trench hinge were significantly larger than control pine only until year five. Of the mechanical treatments, only coarse mixing (by bedding plow) continued to have a significant effect on pine growth for as many as 9 years after treatment. Despite the disappearance of significant differences between mechanical treatments and the untreated control by year 20, the magnitude of stand volume increases suggests the potential for mechanical site preparation to have a beneficial effect on future timber supply. Repeated measures analysis confirmed that trends in early diameter growth differed between the untreated control and the windrow burning or coarse mixing treatments. These data are also potentially valuable for verifying growth and yield or carbon budgeting modelling tools. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Reich R.W.,British Columbia Ministry of forests | Heineman J.L.,J. Heineman Forestry Consulting | Linnell Nemec A.F.,International Statistics and Research Corporation | Bedford L.,British Columbia Ministry of forests | And 2 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2015

Site preparation can improve lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson) survival and growth; however, we lack information regarding possible interactions between treatment effects and the impacts of western gall rust (Endocronartium harknessii (J.P. Moore) Y. Hirats.) and comandra blister rust (Cronartium comandrae Peck). Mechanical and burning techniques examined over 24 years at a sub-boreal British Columbia site did not significantly increase rust infection rates or characteristics relative to an untreated control. Most infection occurred before age 10 years and at heights <2 m. By age 24 years, 22% and 10% of pine had sustained at least one western gall rust or comandra blister rust stem infection, respectively, but only 4% of western gall rust infected trees were dead, compared with 60% of comandra blister rust infected trees. Exploratory regression analysis of the relationship between tree volume and percent stem encirclement and infection height suggested that volume of 24-year-old pine infected with western gall rust averaged 8% less than the corresponding volume of uninfected trees. Over 24 years, estimated stand-level, rust-related volume loss was 8.4%, with the majority due to mortality from comandra blister rust. One-fifth of estimated volume loss was provisionally attributed to growth reductions among live western gall rust infected pine. © 2014, National Research Council of Canada.All rights reserved.

Boateng J.O.,British Columbia Ministry of forests | Heineman J.L.,J. Heineman Forestry Consulting | Bedford L.,British Columbia Ministry of forests | Nemec A.F.L.,International Statistics and Research Corporation
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2010

This study examined mechanical site preparation and windrow burning effects on soil properties and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) foliar nutrients on a sub-boreal site in northcentral British Columbia, Canada. After two decades, there were no adverse long-term effects on soil bulk density. Rather, bulk densities to 20 cm depth declined continuously in all treatments including the control. Coarse mixing was associated with lasting increases in organic matter-related properties [total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), ammonium-N, C/N] compared with the control, whereas plow-inverting, disk trenching, fine mixing and windrow burning had no lasting effects on these attributes. In contrast, windrow burning caused persistent increases in pH and related properties (cation exchange capacity, exchangeable calcium and potassium) relative to the control. Mechanical treatments had more short-lived effects on these properties, with the exception that coarse mixing caused significant 20-year reductions in pH relative to the control. There were slight deficiencies of foliar N, sulfur (S) and boron according to published thresholds. None of the treatments affected foliar N, and the effects on total S and sulfate-S were highly variable and not statistically significant. Boron deficiency in the control and mechanical treatments worsened between years 10 and 20, whereas levels on burned windrows were continuously high. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Mather W.J.,Skyline Forestry Consultants Ltd. | Simard S.W.,University of British Columbia | Heineman J.L.,J. Heineman Forestry Consulting | Sachs D.L.,Forest Research Consultant
Forestry Chronicle | Year: 2010

Lodgepole pine is extensively planted across western Canada but little is known about development of these stands beyond the juvenile stage. We quantified stocking status and damage incidence in sixty-six 15- to 30-year-old lodgepole pine plantations that had previously been declared free-growing in the southern interior of British Columbia. The stands were located in six biogeoclimatic zones: Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine Fir (ESSF), Montane Spruce (MS), Interior Cedar-Hemlock (ICH), Interior Douglas-fir (IDF), Sub-Boreal Spruce (SBS), and Sub-Boreal Pine-Spruce (SBPS). Freegrowing standards were no longer met on 27% of plantations, with the worst performance (70% no longer free-growing) in the Interior Cedar-Hemlock forests. Natural regeneration was common but it was half the size of lodgepole pine. Biotic damage, especially hard pine stem rusts, was the dominant factor reducing free-growing densities. Stands were at greater risk of reduced stocking where summer precipitation was higher or soil moisture regimes were wetter and where stands had been broadcast-burned prior to planting or received secondary treatments of brushing or pruning. Reforestation policies that encourage widespread planting of lodgepole pine, particularly in areas where lodgepole pine has limited natural occurrence such as in the ICH zone, should be reconsidered given that health problems are extensive and are expected to increase with climate change.

Newsome T.A.,Borland | Heineman J.L.,J. Heineman Forestry Consulting | Nemec A.F.L.,International Statistics and Research Corporation
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2010

We used manual cutting to manipulate trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) density and spatial arrangement in relation to crop lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. Ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) on two sites in contrasting dry, cool to cold ecosystems of south-central British Columbia. In the dry, cool interior Douglas-fir ecosystem (IDFdk3), we reduced the density of tall aspen (aspen at least as tall as target pine) to 0 (broadcast removal), 1000, 2500, or 4000 stems/ha when the planted lodgepole pine was 6 years old. Eight years later, pine height/diameter ratio (HDR) was significantly lower in the broadcast removal and 1000 stem/ha treatments than in the control. There were no other significant growth responses and pine survival and vigour were good regardless of treatment. In contrast, in a dry, cold sub-boreal pine spruce ecosystem (SBPSxc) where treatments were applied at a stand age of 11 years, naturally regenerated lodgepole pine stem diameter increased significantly in the broadcast removal treatment relative to the untreated control within 2 years. After 4 years, HDR had declined significantly relative to the control where tall aspen density was ≤1000 stems/ha. There were no significant pine responses where 2500 tall aspen stems/ha were retained or where tall aspen were removed only within a 1-m radius around pine. The greater difference in height (height differential) between aspen and pine at the SBPSxc than the IDFdk3 site may partly explain the differing response of lodgepole pine to treatment. Trends of decreasing sucker density with increasing aspen retention were evident at both sites, but differences were significant (p ≤ 0.05) only at the SBPSxc site. We also used regression analysis to compare the ability of tall aspen density and three competition indices to predict lodgepole pine size when stands were 14-15 years old. Tall aspen density predicted a maximum of 26% of the variation in pine diameter, whereas the Lorimer index, which considered both aspen density and the size differential between aspen and pine, predicted as much as 75% of diameter variation. © 2010.

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