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Machida, Japan

Kawahara J.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Tanaka S.,National Institute of Health and Nutrition | Tanaka C.,J. F. Oberlin University | Aoki Y.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Yonemoto J.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2011

The activity of 5- to 6-year-old Japanese children (n=29) was monitored for 3 consecutive days, including one weekend day, using an ActivTracer tri-axial accelerometer. The daily inhalation rate and time spent in sedentary, light, or moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity (MVPA) were estimated from the accelerometer measurements based on previously developed regression equations. The 3-day mean daily inhalation rate (STPD) was estimated at 8.3±1.4m 3day -1 in 10 subjects who completed 3days of monitoring. The time spent in sedentary, light, or MVPA each day was 320, 415, and 81minday -1, respectively. Analysis of between-day reliability indicated that 3days of monitoring with the ActivTracer tri-axial accelerometer provided an acceptable estimate of daily inhalation rate (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC]=0.892), but low to moderate reliability for the time spent in different levels of activities (ICC=0.43 to 0.58). We observed a significant difference in the daily inhalation rate between weekdays and the weekend day, possibly due to differences in time spent in MVPA. This finding suggests that a weekend day should be included to obtain more reliable estimates of daily inhalation rate using an accelerometer. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Tanaka C.,J. F. Oberlin University | Tanaka S.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences
Annals of Human Biology | Year: 2013

Background: The prevalence of thinness has increased among Japanese children. Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between physical activity and body mass index (BMI) among Japanese pre-school children. Subjects and methods: Subjects were 425 4-6-year-old Japanese girls and boys. Their weights were classified as normal, overweight or thin, based on Cole's international cut-offs for BMI. Physical activity was assessed using a triaxial accelerometer (ActivTracer, GMS) for 6 consecutive days. Results: Physical activity in overweight children was comparable to that in normal-weight children after controlling for age and gender. However, thin children spent significantly greater time engaged in low-intensity activities (physical activity ratio<2) and spent less time engaged in light-intensity physical activity (2physical activity ratio<3) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (physical activity ratio 3) than normal-weight and overweight children, and less time engaged in higher-intensity physical activity (physical activity ratio4) than normal-weight children. Moreover, thin children spent significantly less time engaged in locomotive physical activity than normal-weight or overweight children. Conclusion: This study suggests that thinness, rather than excess weight, is associated with decreased light, moderate and high intensity physical activity in Japanese pre-school children. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd. Source


Takagi S.,Tokyo Medical University | Sakamoto S.,Waseda University | Midorikawa T.,J. F. Oberlin University | Konishi M.,Waseda University | Katsumura T.,Tokyo Medical University
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2014

Maximal fat oxidation (MFO) rate and the exercise intensity that elicits MFO (FATmax-intensity) were designed to evaluate fat metabolism capacity and to provide individuals with a target exercise intensity during prolonged exercise. However, the previous methods of determining FATmax-intensity were time-consuming. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of FATmax-intensity determined by short-time testing. Nine healthy young men performed ramp exercise, in a short-time test, until exhaustion and 5 constant-load exercises of 60 min each at individual FATmax-intensity determined by ramp protocol (FATmax-intensity(R)), FATmax-intensity(R) ± 5% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and FATmax-intensity(R) ± 10%VO2peak. FATmax-intensity was determined among 5 trials at points of early exercise (10 min) and prolonged exercise (60 min) to evaluate the validity of FATmax-intensity(R). Ten minutes after starting constant-load exercise, FATmax-intensity(R) showed the highest fat oxidation among 5 trials, even though MFO by ramp protocol was overestimated. Therefore, it may be useful for evaluation of fat metabolism to include the measurement of the FATmax-intensity in a routine ramp test. However, because FATmax-intensity(R) did not elicit the highest fat oxidation among 5 trials of 60 min each after starting constant-load exercise, FATmax-intensity(R) may not be effective for prolonged exercise training. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source


Tanaka C.,J. F. Oberlin University | Hikihara Y.,Chiba Institute of Technology | Ohkawara K.,University of Electro - Communications | Tanaka S.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences
Pediatric Exercise Science | Year: 2012

This study examined the potential relationship between participation in physical activity (PA) assessed by triaxial accelerometry and physical fitness testing, including health-related and skill-related parameters of fitness, in 136 Japanese preschoolers (65 girls and 71 boys, 5.5 ± 0.6 years). In partial correlation analyses, grip strength and 20m shuttle run test were positively correlated with time spent in physical activity ratio (PAR) ≥ 4. Better scores on standing long jump distance and jump over and crawl under tests were associated with lower sedentary time and greater moderate-to-vigorous PA time and PAR ≥ 4 time, and increased physical activity level. Moreover, 25m run speed was positively correlated with time spent in PAR ≥ 4 and locomotive activity. These findings suggest that development of both health-related (muscle strength and aerobic fitness) and skill-related fitness (power, agility and speed) may make engagement in PA easier for preschool children, although further research on the cause-effect relationship is needed. © 2012 Human Kinetics, Inc. Source


Tanaka C.,J. F. Oberlin University | Tanaka S.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences
Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine | Year: 2012

Pedometers are frequently used to measure habitual physical activity (PA). However, non-locomotive PA may constitute a substantial part of total PA in workers engaged in certain occupations. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relative contribution of non-locomotive PA to total habitual PA in Japanese workers. Subjects were 177 Japanese males and females. Occupations of the subjects were preschool (kindergarten and nursery school) teachers, salespersons, drivers, licensed cooks, security guards, housewives, garbage collectors and office workers. Light PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and step counts were assessed using a triaxial accelerometer (Active style Pro HJA-350IT, Omron Healthcare Co., Ltd), which allowed for an accurate discrimination between locomotive and non-locomotive PA. The non-locomotive component of MVPA predominated in licensed cooks and garbage collectors, while security guards displayed more locomotive MVPA. The non-locomotive component of light PA predominated in preschool teachers, salespersons, licensed cooks and housewives, while security guards displayed more locomotive light PA. Relative contributions of non-locomotive PA were different among occupations. The present study suggests that locomotor measurements alone might substantially underestimate habitual PA in workers engaged in certain occupations (e.g., licensed cooks and garbage collectors). Source

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