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Cookson S.,J. F. Oberlin University
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2017

Crew resource management (CRM) is an important airline training tool that was developed in the United States and has been used to train flight crews worldwide since the 1990s. Modern CRM programs cover a wide range of skill areas, including communication, interpersonal skills and decision-making. This paper describes the evolution of CRM and its underlying cultural assumptions. CRM has been criticized for being implicitly biased towards Western culture, and there have been calls for the development of different versions “culturally calibrated” to meet the needs of target participants around the world. This paper reviews research into national cultural differences, as well as airline organizational culture and pilot professional culture, and examines the implications for CRM training. This study is relevant to all international airline flight operations, especially those involving mixed-nationality crews. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017.


Cookson S.,J. F. Oberlin University
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2017

The aim of this paper is to reflect on the ancient myth of Daedalus and Icarus, which was probably the first record of a flying accident, in order to see what lessons it holds for modern aviation. The paper provides an analytical description of the original text composed by Ovid, one of the canonical poets of the Roman world, two thousand years ago. This examination of Ovid’s version of the myth reveals links to several important concepts in aviation human factors. Moreover, there are interesting divergences between the modern version of the story and that of Ovid. The paper concludes by proposing a new interpretation of the myth, the Daedalus Dilemma, which is relevant to contemporary flight operations. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017.


Kitadai A.,J. F. Oberlin University | Nakagawa M.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Baba H.,Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties | Watanabe A.,Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties
Proceedings - 10th IAPR International Workshop on Document Analysis Systems, DAS 2012 | Year: 2012

We have many historical documents written in over 1,000 years ago. Shape features of character patterns on the documents are unstable or missing because most of the documents have been stained and degraded deeply. Digital archives of the documents with accurate character pattern retrieval methods are helpful for archaeologists and historians. In this paper, we propose a similarity evaluation method for character patterns with missing shape parts. It collaboratively works with non-linear normalization for such patterns, and modifies the templates for each trial of the retrieval efficiently. In the experiences using 4,911 Kanji (Chinese origin) character patterns from the Japanese historical documents called mokkans, the method shows improvements of the retrieval accuracy. Also, we present a simple implementation of gradient feature extraction to compare the chain code feature with the gradient feature in the retrieval. As the result, the gradient feature works better than the chain code feature. © 2012 IEEE.


Tanaka C.,J. F. Oberlin University | Hikihara Y.,Chiba Institute of Technology | Ohkawara K.,University of Electro - Communications | Tanaka S.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences
Pediatric Exercise Science | Year: 2012

This study examined the potential relationship between participation in physical activity (PA) assessed by triaxial accelerometry and physical fitness testing, including health-related and skill-related parameters of fitness, in 136 Japanese preschoolers (65 girls and 71 boys, 5.5 ± 0.6 years). In partial correlation analyses, grip strength and 20m shuttle run test were positively correlated with time spent in physical activity ratio (PAR) ≥ 4. Better scores on standing long jump distance and jump over and crawl under tests were associated with lower sedentary time and greater moderate-to-vigorous PA time and PAR ≥ 4 time, and increased physical activity level. Moreover, 25m run speed was positively correlated with time spent in PAR ≥ 4 and locomotive activity. These findings suggest that development of both health-related (muscle strength and aerobic fitness) and skill-related fitness (power, agility and speed) may make engagement in PA easier for preschool children, although further research on the cause-effect relationship is needed. © 2012 Human Kinetics, Inc.


Takagi S.,Tokyo Medical University | Sakamoto S.,Waseda University | Midorikawa T.,J. F. Oberlin University | Konishi M.,Waseda University | Katsumura T.,Tokyo Medical University
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2014

Maximal fat oxidation (MFO) rate and the exercise intensity that elicits MFO (FATmax-intensity) were designed to evaluate fat metabolism capacity and to provide individuals with a target exercise intensity during prolonged exercise. However, the previous methods of determining FATmax-intensity were time-consuming. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of FATmax-intensity determined by short-time testing. Nine healthy young men performed ramp exercise, in a short-time test, until exhaustion and 5 constant-load exercises of 60 min each at individual FATmax-intensity determined by ramp protocol (FATmax-intensity(R)), FATmax-intensity(R) ± 5% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and FATmax-intensity(R) ± 10%VO2peak. FATmax-intensity was determined among 5 trials at points of early exercise (10 min) and prolonged exercise (60 min) to evaluate the validity of FATmax-intensity(R). Ten minutes after starting constant-load exercise, FATmax-intensity(R) showed the highest fat oxidation among 5 trials, even though MFO by ramp protocol was overestimated. Therefore, it may be useful for evaluation of fat metabolism to include the measurement of the FATmax-intensity in a routine ramp test. However, because FATmax-intensity(R) did not elicit the highest fat oxidation among 5 trials of 60 min each after starting constant-load exercise, FATmax-intensity(R) may not be effective for prolonged exercise training. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Tanaka C.,J. F. Oberlin University | Tanaka S.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences
Annals of Human Biology | Year: 2013

Background: The prevalence of thinness has increased among Japanese children. Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between physical activity and body mass index (BMI) among Japanese pre-school children. Subjects and methods: Subjects were 425 4-6-year-old Japanese girls and boys. Their weights were classified as normal, overweight or thin, based on Cole's international cut-offs for BMI. Physical activity was assessed using a triaxial accelerometer (ActivTracer, GMS) for 6 consecutive days. Results: Physical activity in overweight children was comparable to that in normal-weight children after controlling for age and gender. However, thin children spent significantly greater time engaged in low-intensity activities (physical activity ratio<2) and spent less time engaged in light-intensity physical activity (2physical activity ratio<3) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (physical activity ratio 3) than normal-weight and overweight children, and less time engaged in higher-intensity physical activity (physical activity ratio4) than normal-weight children. Moreover, thin children spent significantly less time engaged in locomotive physical activity than normal-weight or overweight children. Conclusion: This study suggests that thinness, rather than excess weight, is associated with decreased light, moderate and high intensity physical activity in Japanese pre-school children. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd.


Kawahara J.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Tanaka S.,National Institute of Health and Nutrition | Tanaka C.,J. F. Oberlin University | Aoki Y.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Yonemoto J.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2011

The activity of 5- to 6-year-old Japanese children (n=29) was monitored for 3 consecutive days, including one weekend day, using an ActivTracer tri-axial accelerometer. The daily inhalation rate and time spent in sedentary, light, or moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity (MVPA) were estimated from the accelerometer measurements based on previously developed regression equations. The 3-day mean daily inhalation rate (STPD) was estimated at 8.3±1.4m 3day -1 in 10 subjects who completed 3days of monitoring. The time spent in sedentary, light, or MVPA each day was 320, 415, and 81minday -1, respectively. Analysis of between-day reliability indicated that 3days of monitoring with the ActivTracer tri-axial accelerometer provided an acceptable estimate of daily inhalation rate (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC]=0.892), but low to moderate reliability for the time spent in different levels of activities (ICC=0.43 to 0.58). We observed a significant difference in the daily inhalation rate between weekdays and the weekend day, possibly due to differences in time spent in MVPA. This finding suggests that a weekend day should be included to obtain more reliable estimates of daily inhalation rate using an accelerometer. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Tanaka C.,J. F. Oberlin University | Tanaka S.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences
Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine | Year: 2012

Pedometers are frequently used to measure habitual physical activity (PA). However, non-locomotive PA may constitute a substantial part of total PA in workers engaged in certain occupations. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relative contribution of non-locomotive PA to total habitual PA in Japanese workers. Subjects were 177 Japanese males and females. Occupations of the subjects were preschool (kindergarten and nursery school) teachers, salespersons, drivers, licensed cooks, security guards, housewives, garbage collectors and office workers. Light PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and step counts were assessed using a triaxial accelerometer (Active style Pro HJA-350IT, Omron Healthcare Co., Ltd), which allowed for an accurate discrimination between locomotive and non-locomotive PA. The non-locomotive component of MVPA predominated in licensed cooks and garbage collectors, while security guards displayed more locomotive MVPA. The non-locomotive component of light PA predominated in preschool teachers, salespersons, licensed cooks and housewives, while security guards displayed more locomotive light PA. Relative contributions of non-locomotive PA were different among occupations. The present study suggests that locomotor measurements alone might substantially underestimate habitual PA in workers engaged in certain occupations (e.g., licensed cooks and garbage collectors).


Fujikura M.,J. F. Oberlin University
Environmental Policy and Governance | Year: 2011

Starting in 1970, Japanese businesses were made responsible for the disposal of their own industrial waste. Thereafter, in principle, tax money could no longer be used to cover the costs of industrial waste disposal, a task entrusted to private-sector contractors engaged in waste collection, transport and disposal. Letting economic principles dictate the handling of waste - which has no intrinsic value - opened the door to the rampant problem of illegal dumping by waste-emitting businesses; private-sector waste disposal contractors carried on a thriving business of improper waste disposal, creating an enormous black market. To deal with the illegal dumping and improper disposal of waste, the Waste Management Act was amended several times starting in 1991. An indirect effect of creation of the Industrial Waste Site Restoration Fund in 1997 was the economic incentive for prefectures to improve their own administrative capacity; in addition, the strengthening of punitive measures not only suppressed criminal activity but also created the incentive for law enforcement to improve its capabilities. Another amendment in 2000 gave waste-emitting businesses greater responsibility for waste disposal, and the fact that they could become liable for costs, even if not in violation of the Act when waste disposal was subcontracted out, gave them the incentive to select trustworthy contractors with which to deal. As a result, problems such as illegal dumping have begun to decline. Several issues remain for Japan to address, among them some institutional problems in dealing with illegal dumping sites that have not been immediately cleaned up, and the fact that unscrupulous operators are exploiting a loophole that fails to classify contaminated soil as waste, still allowing them to dump it illegally. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.


Tanaka C.,J. F. Oberlin University | Tanaka C.,University of Strathclyde | Reilly J.J.,University of Strathclyde | Huang W.Y.,University of Strathclyde | Huang W.Y.,Chinese University of Hong Kong
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2014

This review aimed to determine longitudinal changes in objectively measured overall sedentary behaviour, and to examine their associations with adiposity in children and adolescents. A search for longitudinal studies was performed using several electronic databases. Of 161 potentially eligible papers, 10 for change in sedentary behaviour and 3 for longitudinal associations with change in adiposity were included. Weighted mean increase in daily sedentary behaviour per year was 5.7% for boys and 5.8% for girls. Only one paper included preschool children, and it showed a decrease in sedentary behaviour. Nine studies were from Western countries. Null associations were reported between sedentary behaviour and adiposity in two studies, the other found that increases in sedentary behaviour were associated with increases in adiposity, but only in those with body mass index above the 50th percentile. There was consistent evidence that sedentary behaviour increases with age in school-age children and adolescents, by approximately 30min extra daily sedentary behaviour per year. There was little evidence on the influence of changes in sedentary behaviour on changes in adiposity. There is a need for more longitudinal research, for more evidence from outside the Western world, and for more studies that examine 'dose-response' associations between changes in sedentary behaviour and changes in adiposity. © 2014 The Author(s).

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