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Isleroglu H.,Ege University | Kemerli T.,Ege University | Sakin-Yilmazer M.,Ege University | Guven G.,Izmir Province Control Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2012

Effects of baking method and temperature on surface browning and acrylamide concentration of cookies were investigated. Cookies were baked in natural and forced convection and steam-assisted hybrid ovens at 165, 180, and 195 °C and at different times. For all oven types, the acrlyamide concentration and surface color of cookies increased with increasing baking temperature. Significant correlation was observed between acrylamide formation and browning index, BI, which was calculated from Hunter L, a, and b color values, and it showed that the BI may be considered as a reliable indicator of acrylamide concentration in cookies. Acrylamide formation and browning index in cookies were considered as the first-order reaction kinetics and the reaction rate constants, k, were in the range of 0.023 to 0.077 (min-1) and 0.019 to 0.063 (min-1), respectively. The effect of baking temperature on surface color and acrylamide concentration followed the Arrhenius type of equation, with activation energies for acrylamide concentration as 6.87 to 27.84 kJ/mol; for BI value as 19.54 to 35.36 kJ/mol, for all oven types. Steam-assisted baking resulted in lower acrylamide concentration at 165 °C baking temperature and lower surface color for all temperatures. Steam-assisted baking is recommended as a healthy way of cooking providing the reduction of harmful compounds such as acrylamide for bakery goods, at a minimal level, while keeping the physical quality. Practical Application: The kinetics of acrylamide formation and browning of cookies will possibly allow definition of optimum baking temperatures and times at convectional and steam-assisted baking ovens. The kinetic model can be used by developing baking programs that can automatically control especially a new home-scale steam-assisted hybrid oven producing healthy products, for the use of domestic consumers. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®. Source


Taga O.,Namik Kemal University | Taga O.,Izmir Province Control Laboratory | Bilgin B.,Namik Kemal University
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2010

This study was carried out to investigate the organochlorine (OC), organophosphorus (OP) and organochlorine and organophosphorus (OC and OP) pesticide residues in citrus fruit samples (mandarin, orange and lemon) collected from the Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. Sample preparation and extraction were performed using Luke extraction method. The concentrations of pesticides were determined by gas chromatography with selective detectors: electron capture detector, nitrogen phosphorus detector and mass selective detector and confirmed with mass-spectrometry. At least one type of pesticide residue was found in 105 samples out of 210 (50%). In 5 samples (2.4%), the residue levels were found above the maximum residue levels of Turkish food codex and European union standards. Source


Ozdestan O.,Ege University | Alpozen E.,Izmir Province Control Laboratory | Guven G.,Izmir Province Control Laboratory | Uren A.,Eurasian University
International Journal of Food Properties | Year: 2012

Kumru is a traditional fermented cereal food made with flour and chickpea yeast. Ten samples of kumru supplied from different manufacturers in Turkey were analysed for the first time to determine biogenic amine contents using HPLC with benzoyl derivatization. Of the 10 amines under study, putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, and histamine were detected in all samples. Spermine was the prevailing biogenic amine. Spermine concentrations of kumru samples changed from 2.4 to 17.9 mg/kg of kumru. Total amine contents of kumru samples were between 23.9 and 42.2 mg/kg of kumru. Concentrations of biogenic amines were far below the allowable limits. The pH values of kumru samples were in the range from 5.28 to 6.40; acidities were in the range from 0.12 to 0.28 g/100 g kumru (as lactic acid); total dry matters were from 63.36 to 69.71 g/100 g kumru; and total free amino acid contents were from 0.101 to 0.251 g/100 g kumru (as leucine). Significant correlations were detected between biogenic amine concentrations and pHs, acidities, and total free amino acid contents. No significant correlations were detected between biogenic amine concentrations and total dry matter contents of kumru samples. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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