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Janzen N.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Dopp E.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Dopp E.,Iww Rheinisch Westfalisches Institute For Wasserforschung Ggmbh | Hesse J.,University of Duisburg - Essen | And 4 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2011

The reaction of the fragrance compounds 4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-1,3,4,7-tetrahydrocyclopenta[g]. isochromene (HHCB), 1-(3,5,5,6,8,8-hexamethyl-6,7-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)ethanone (AHTN), 1-tert-butyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (musk xylene/MX), 1-(4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-dinitrophenyl)ethanone (musk ketone/MK), and 1-(2,3,8,8-tetramethyl-1,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydronaphthalen-2-yl)ethanone (OTNE) with ozone in tap water as well as waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents is described. Several transformation products are characterized by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. One transformation product (HHCB-Lactone) was confirmed by means of a true standard. Musk xylene and musk ketone do not react with ozone under the conditions used in this study. AHTN and HHCB reacted slowly to a multitude of transformation products, while OTNE reacted quickly to several stable transformation products. The reaction constants and half lives are used to predict removal efficiencies for full scale reactors. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Richard J.,Iww Rheinisch Westfalisches Institute For Wasserforschung Ggmbh | Richard J.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Boergers A.,Institute fur Energie und Umwelttechnik e.V. | vom Eyser C.,Institute fur Energie und Umwelttechnik e.V. | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health | Year: 2014

The amount of organic micropollutants detected in surface waters increases steadily. Common waste water treatment plants are not built to remove these substances. Thus there is a need for new technologies. A promising technology is the use of advanced oxidation processes through which organic micropollutants can be removed from waste water. However, the formation of oxidation by-products is likely and needs to be investigated since the by-products not only differ from their parent compounds in regard to their chemical and physical properties but they can also differ in toxicity. Therefore this study was designed to combine chemical and toxicological analyses of the advanced oxidation (O3 [5mg/L] or UV/H2O2 [Hg-LP lamp; 15W; 1g/L H2O2]) of waste water treatment plant effluents and pure water. Effluent samples from conventional activated sludge waste water treatment (mechanical treatment, activated sludge basin, and primary as well as secondary treatment steps) and high-purity deionized water (pure water) were spiked with Bisphenol A, Ciprofloxacin, Metoprolol or Sulfamethoxazole and treated with O3 or UV/H2O2. For the toxicological analyses mammalian cells (CHO-9, T47D) were exposed to the water samples for 24h and were tested for cytotoxicity (MTT Test), genotoxicity (Alkaline Comet Assay) and estrogenicity (ER Calux®). The results indicate that the oxidative treatment (O3 or UV/H2O2) of Bisphenol A, Metoprolol, Sulfamethoxazole or Ciprofloxacin in waste water did not result in toxic oxidation by-products, whereas the UV/H2O2 treatment of Bisphenol A and Ciprofloxacin in pure water resulted in by-products with cytotoxic but no estrogenic effects after 60min. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. Source


Vom Eyser C.,Institute For Energie Und Umwelttechnik E V | Borgers A.,Institute For Energie Und Umwelttechnik E V | Richard J.,Iww Rheinisch Westfalisches Institute For Wasserforschung Ggmbh | Dopp E.,Iww Rheinisch Westfalisches Institute For Wasserforschung Ggmbh | And 3 more authors.
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The entry of pharmaceuticals into the water cycle from sewage treatment plants is of growing concern because environmental effects are evident at trace levels. Ozonation, UV- and UV/H2O2- treatment were tested as an additional step in waste water treatment because they have been proven to be effective in eliminating aqueous organic contaminants. The pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, diclofenac, metoprolol and sulfamethoxazole as well as the personal care products galaxolide and tonalide were investigated in terms of degradation efficiency and by-product formation in consideration of toxic effects. The substances were largely removed from treatment plant effluent by ozonation, UV- and UV/H2O2-treatment. Transformation products were detected in all tested treatment processes. Accompanying analysis showed no genotoxic, cytotoxic or estrogenic potential for the investigated compounds after oxidative treatment of real waste waters. The results indicate that by-product formation from ozonation and advanced oxidation processes does not have any negative environmental impact. © IWA Publishing 2013. Source


Rohn A.,Iww Rheinisch Westfalisches Institute For Wasserforschung Ggmbh | Merkel W.,Iww Rheinisch Westfalisches Institute For Wasserforschung Ggmbh
GWF, Wasser - Abwasser | Year: 2013

With regard to the national climate protection targets, water supply companies contribute to minimize the greenhouse gas emissions of their processes. Starting point is a suitable accounting system for greenhouse gas emissions, allowing a top-down company balance and a bottom-up process analysis in order to initiate targeted reduction measures. In this context, a sufficiently comprehensive and robust accounting approach on a scientific basis was developed and applied to existing water supply systems. The reporting system is based as well on international standards as on uniformly sector-specific scoping and simplifications, jointly developed and applied with the water supply companies involved. Pilot applications with three water supply companies showed the general feasibility of both the top-down and the bottom-up approach. Minimisation of the carbon footprint could be achieved by using green energy from renewable resources, energy-optimised process design and minimisation of treatment chemicals. Source


Schaule G.,Iww Rheinisch Westfalisches Institute For Wasserforschung Ggmbh | Schulte S.,Water Technology Applications Ashland Industries Deutschland GmbH | Flemming H.-C.,Biofilm Center
GWF, Wasser - Abwasser | Year: 2010

The quality of water in Germany is considered exemplary worldwide - at least up to the water meter. But with household installations a gray area begins. A wide variety of materials is used with quite a few of them supporting biofilm growth. As a consequence, disinfection measures are taken, stressing and, thus, ageing the materials. This study addresses the question in how far ageing might support further biofilm growth. The work is part of a joint research project conducted by five research institutes including the IWW Water Centre and 17 industrial partners under the coordination of Prof. Dr. Hans-Curt Flemming (University of Duisburg-Essen). It was funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) for four years. The results call for attention. Source

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