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Alauddin M.,University of Queensland | Sharma B.R.,International Water Management Institute IWMI
Ecological Economics | Year: 2013

While the bulk of research on crop water productivity (WP) focuses on static cross-section analysis, this research provides a spatio-temporal perspective. It estimates rice crop WP for 21 Bangladesh districts for 37. years; explores WP variations among districts; and investigates causality involving WP, intensification and technological variables; and groundwater irrigation and depth. It breaks new grounds by probing these significant but unexplored issues.Technological diffusion was the key factor explaining inter-district WP differences. The impact of agricultural intensification on rabi (dry season) and kharif (wet season) crop WPs was positive and negative respectively. Dummy variables typifying policy transition negatively impacted on WPs for both kharif and overall crops. While rabi and kharif rice WPs grew with time, overall crop WP recorded the strongest growth. Rabi and overall WPs were lower in salinity- and drought-prone districts covering 33% of Bangladesh's net cropped area (NCA).In 90% of Bangladesh's NCA districts, technological diffusion caused WP. Causality existed between groundwater irrigation and depth in 60% NCA. Despite significant potential to increase WP, increasing dependence on groundwater appears unsustainable. Widespread diffusion of HYVs in the kharif season, and development of salinity and drought-tolerant rice varieties could go a long way in sustaining rice WP. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Katic P.,International Water Management Institute IWMI | Quentin Grafton R.,Australian National University
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2011

This paper evaluates the trade-off between resilience and economic payoffs in terms of groundwater extraction where there is a risk of an irreversible and catastrophic event. A dynamic and spatial model is developed that incorporates a stochastic recharge process and the risk of an irreversible catastrophic event (such as saltwater intrusion) that arises when hydraulic heads fall below a given threshold. The results show that if the threshold is uncertain then controlling both the rate and depth of extraction can generate a higher economic return and a lower probability of crossing the threshold than only controlling the rate of extraction. This occurs even if the extraction rate is set optimally and is less than the extraction rate than when two forms of control are used. The model and findings provide an applied framework to understand and to quantify where there might be 'win-win' outcomes, and trade-offs between economic payoffs and resilience in terms of groundwater extraction. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Yakubov M.,International Water Management Institute IWMI
Irrigation and Drainage | Year: 2012

Irrigation performance assessments are important tools that irrigation service providers at various levels of the water management hierarchy can use for monitoring, benchmarking and self-improvement. Despite the recognition that irrigation performance can and should be assessed from a variety of perspectives, the perspectives of the users, farmers, have received surprising little attention. This is even more apparent given the widespread context of irrigation management transfer reforms throughout the world aiming at effective user empowerment through farmer-owned and driven water users associations. This paper attempts to partially fill this gap by exploring and sensitizing farmers' views about irrigation service and related performance dimensions using qualitative research methods. Based on focus group discussions with a purposive sample of farmers from a range of water users' associations in Central Asia and a grounded theory approach the study lays a conceptual foundation for future practical applications. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Yami M.,International Water Management Institute IWMI
Water Policy | Year: 2013

Community participation, defined as engaging users of schemes in the decision-making processes for the planning and implementation of irrigation projects, is critical for the sustainability of irrigation schemes. This study was carried out in three regional states of Ethiopia to investigate the contribution of water user associations (WUAs) to sustaining participation in irrigation projects. The paper demonstrates that the poor understanding of community participation and institutional development by project staff in donor-supported irrigation projects results in the poor performance of WUAs in enhancing participation in irrigation systems. The interventions of external bodies in setting up the WUA by-laws and in determining the responsibilities of users and WUA committees contributed to the low level of participation. The transfer of schemes to WUAs without building WUA committees' abilities in operation and maintenance constrained their ability to sustainably manage irrigation schemes. The WUA committees are male-dominated and the views of women are hardly represented in the decision making. Therefore, establishing WUA committees that reflect the interests and inputs of scheme users is crucial to achieve fair decision making. Local authorities and non-governmental organizations could do more to change perceptions and behaviour to reflect the importance of gender equity in sustaining the positive outcomes of irrigation at household and community levels. © 2013 IWA Publishing. Source


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2011.3.1.1-2 | Award Amount: 4.78M | Year: 2011

Saph Pani addresses the improvement of natural water treatment systems such as river bank filtration (RBF), managed aquifer recharge (MAR) and wetlands in India building on a combination of local and international expertise. The project aims at enhancing water resources and water supply particularly in water stressed urban and peri-urban areas in different parts of the sub-continent. The objective is to strengthen the scientific understanding of the performance-determining processes occurring in the root, soil and aquifer zones of the relevant processes considering the removal and fate of important water quality parameters such as pathogenic microorganisms and respective indicators, organic substances and metals. Moreover the hydrologic characteristics (infiltration and storage capacity) and the eco-system function will be investigated along with the integral importance in the local or regional water resources management concept (e.g. by providing underground buffering of seasonal variations in supply and demand). The socio-economic value of the enhanced utilisation of the attenuation and storage capacity will be evaluated taking into account long-term sustainability issues and a comprehensive risk management. The project focuses on a set of case study areas in India covering various regional, climatic, and hydrogeological conditions as well as different treatment technologies. The site investigations will include hydrological and geochemical characterisation and, depending on the degree of site development, water quality monitoring or pre-feasibility studies for new treatment schemes. Besides the actual natural treatment component the investigation may encompass also appropriate pre- and post treatment steps to potabilise the water or avoid clogging of the sub-surface structures. The experimental and conceptual studies will be complemented by modelling activities which help to support the transferability of results.

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