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Brownrigg J.R.W.,St Georges Vascular Institute | Apelqvist J.,Skane University Hospital | Bakker K.,IWGDF | Schaper N.C.,CARIM and CAPHRI Institute | Hinchliffe R.J.,St Georges Vascular Institute
European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery | Year: 2013

Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) is associated with high morbidity and mortality, and represents the leading cause of hospitalization in patients with diabetes. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD), present in half of patients with DFU, is an independent predictor of limb loss and can be difficult to diagnose in a diabetic population. This review focuses on the evidence for therapeutic strategies in the management of patients with DFU. We highlight the importance of timely referral of patients presenting with a new foot ulcer to a multidisciplinary team, which includes vascular surgeons and interventional radiologists. © 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Hinchliffe R.J.,St Georges Vascular Institute | Andros G.,Amputation Prevention Center | Apelqvist J.,Skane University Hospital | Bakker K.,IWGDF | And 9 more authors.
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews | Year: 2012

In several large recent observational studies, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was present in up to 50% of the patients with a diabetic foot ulcer and was an independent risk factor for amputation. The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot therefore established a multidisciplinary working group to evaluate the effectiveness of revascularization of the ulcerated foot in patients with diabetes and PAD. A systematic search was performed for therapies to revascularize the ulcerated foot in patients with diabetes and PAD from 1980-June 2010. Only clinically relevant outcomes were assessed. The research conformed to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, and the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network methodological scores were assigned. A total of 49 papers were eligible for full text review. There were no randomized controlled trials, but there were three nonrandomized studies with a control group. The major outcomes following endovascular or open bypass surgery were broadly similar among the studies. Following open surgery, the 1-year limb salvage rates were a median of 85% (interquartile range of 80-90%), and following endovascular revascularization, these rates were 78% (70.5-85.5%). At 1-year follow-up, 60% or more of ulcers had healed following revascularization with either open bypass surgery or endovascular revascularization. Studies appeared to demonstrate improved rates of limb salvage associated with revascularization compared with the results of medically treated patients in the literature. There were insufficient data to recommend one method of revascularization over another. There is a real need for standardized reporting of baseline demographic data, severity of disease and outcome reporting in this group of patients. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Peters E.J.G.,VU University Amsterdam | Lipsky B.A.,University of Washington | Berendt A.R.,University of Oxford | Embil J.M.,University of Manitoba | And 5 more authors.
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews | Year: 2012

The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot expert panel on infection conducted a systematic review of the published evidence relating to treatment of foot infection in diabetes. Our search of the literature published prior to August 2010 identified 7517 articles, 29 of which fulfilled predefined criteria for detailed data extraction. Four additional eligible papers were identified from other sources. Of the total of 33 studies, 29 were randomized controlled trials, and four were cohort studies. Among 12 studies comparing different antibiotic regimens in the management of skin and soft-tissue infection, none reported a better response with any particular regimen. Of seven studies that compared antibiotic regimens in patients with infection involving both soft tissue and bone, one reported a better clinical outcome in those treated with cefoxitin compared with ampicillin/sulbactam, but the others reported no differences between treatment regimens. In two health economic analyses, there was a small saving using one regimen versus another. No published data support the superiority of any particular route of delivery of systemic antibiotics or clarify the optimal duration of antibiotic therapy in either soft-tissue infection or osteomyelitis. In one non-randomized cohort study, the outcome of treatment of osteomyelitis was better when the antibiotic choice was based on culture of bone specimens as opposed to wound swabs, but this study was not randomized, and the results may have been affected by confounding factors. Results from two studies suggested that early surgical intervention was associated with a significant reduction in major amputation, but the methodological quality of both was low. In two studies, the use of superoxidized water was associated with a better outcome than soap or povidone iodine, but both had a high risk of bias. Studies using granulocyte-colony stimulating factor reported mixed results. There was no improvement in infection outcomes associated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. No benefit has been reported with any other intervention, and, overall, there are currently no trial data to justify the adoption of any particular therapeutic approach in diabetic patients with infection of either soft tissue or bone of the foot. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Schaper N.C.,CARIM and CAPHRI Institutes | Van Netten J.J.,Ziekenhuisgroep Twente | Apelqvist J.,Skane University Hospital | Lipsky B.A.,University of Geneva | And 2 more authors.
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews | Year: 2016

In this 'Summary Guidance for Daily Practice', we describe the basic principles of prevention and management of foot problems in persons with diabetes. This summary is based on the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) Guidance 2015. There are five key elements that underpin prevention of foot problems: (1) identification of the at-risk foot; (2) regular inspection and examination of the at-risk foot; (3) education of patient, family and healthcare providers; (4) routine wearing of appropriate footwear; and (5) treatment of pre-ulcerative signs. Healthcare providers should follow a standardized and consistent strategy for evaluating a foot wound, as this will guide further evaluation and therapy. The following items must be addressed: type, cause, site and depth, and signs of infection. There are seven key elements that underpin ulcer treatment: (1) relief of pressure and protection of the ulcer; (2) restoration of skin perfusion; (3) treatment of infection; (4) metabolic control and treatment of co-morbidity; (5) local wound care; (6) education for patient and relatives; and (7) prevention of recurrence. Finally, successful efforts to prevent and manage foot problems in diabetes depend upon a well-organized team, using a holistic approach in which the ulcer is seen as a sign of multi-organ disease, and integrating the various disciplines involved. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Bakker K.,IWGDF | Apelqvist J.,Skane University Hospital | Lipsky B.A.,University of Geneva | Lipsky B.A.,University of Oxford | And 2 more authors.
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews | Year: 2016

Foot problems complicating diabetes are a source of major patient suffering and societal costs. Investing in evidence-based, internationally appropriate diabetic foot care guidance is likely among the most cost-effective forms of healthcare expenditure, provided it is goal-focused and properly implemented. The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) has been publishing and updating international Practical Guidelines since 1999. The 2015 updates are based on systematic reviews of the literature, and recommendations are formulated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation system. As such, we changed the name from 'Practical Guidelines' to 'Guidance'. In this article we describe the development of the 2015 IWGDF Guidance documents on prevention and management of foot problems in diabetes. This Guidance consists of five documents, prepared by five working groups of international experts. These documents provide guidance related to foot complications in persons with diabetes on: prevention; footwear and offloading; peripheral artery disease; infections; and, wound healing interventions. Based on these five documents, the IWGDF Editorial Board produced a summary guidance for daily practice. The resultant of this process, after reviewed by the Editorial Board and by international IWGDF members of all documents, is an evidence-based global consensus on prevention and management of foot problems in diabetes. Plans are already under way to implement this Guidance. We believe that following the recommendations of the 2015 IWGDF Guidance will almost certainly result in improved management of foot problems in persons with diabetes and a subsequent worldwide reduction in the tragedies caused by these foot problems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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