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Nishimoto M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Hidaka M.,University of Tokyo | Hidaka M.,Tohoku University | Nakajima M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic | Year: 2012

Three amino acid residues of 1,3-β-galactosyl-N-acetylhexosamine phosphorylase (GalHexNAcP) were assigned as the determinants of substrate preference for galacto-N-biose (GNB) and lacto-N-biose I (LNB) based on the three-dimensional structure of the protein. Mutants of GalHexNAcP from Bifidobacterium longum, which acts similarly on both GNB and LNB, were constructed and characterized. V162T mutation led to an increase in the selectivity on GNB. P161S and S336A mutations independently enhanced the selectivity on LNB. The alignment of amino acid sequences suggests that the activities of most homologous sequences are predictable by comparing the corresponding three residues. .© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ishii T.,Kobe University | Numaguchi K.,Kobe University | Miura K.,Nagoya University | Miura K.,Fukui Prefectural University | And 10 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2013

Reduction in seed shattering was an important phenotypic change during cereal domestication. Here we show that a simple morphological change in rice panicle shape, controlled by the SPR3 locus, has a large impact on seed-shedding and pollinating behaviors. In the wild genetic background of rice, we found that plants with a cultivated-like type of closed panicle had significantly reduced seed shedding through seed retention. In addition, the long awns in closed panicles disturbed the free exposure of anthers and stigmas on the flowering spikelets, resulting in a significant reduction of the outcrossing rate. We localized the SPR3 locus to a 9.3-kb genomic region, and our complementation tests suggest that this region regulates the liguleless gene (OsLG1). Sequencing analysis identified reduced nucleotide diversity and a selective sweep at the SPR3 locus in cultivated rice. Our results suggest that a closed panicle was a selected trait during rice domestication.

Matthies I.E.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Sharma S.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Sharma S.,Iwate Biotechnology Institute | Weise S.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Roder M.S.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research
Euphytica | Year: 2012

Sequence diversity in the two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genes encoding sucrose synthase I (SSI) and sucrose phosphate synthase II (SPSII), both of which are involved in sucrose accumulation and grain filling, was studied by partial resequencing of eight reference genotypes and SNP analysis by pyrosequencing in a panel of 94 spring and 96 winter European barley varieties. The resequencing was based on two adjacent SSI fragments of size 880 and 820 bp, and a 2,322 bp SPSII fragment. In the SSI gene, 26 SNPs were present in the larger fragment, and 25 in the smaller one, and 11 of these were exploited to develop high-throughput SNP assays used for haplotype analysis. An association analysis based on either a general or a mixed linear model suggested that the predominant three haplotypes influenced certain components of both kernel and malting quality. However, the level of phenotype/haplotype association shown with the SPSII gene was rather low. SNP variation of SSI was used to map the locus to chromosome 7H. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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