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Jin Z.W.,Chonbuk National University | Nakamura T.,Sapporo Medical University | Yu H.C.,Chonbuk National University | Kimura W.,Yamagata University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Anatomy | Year: 2010

We demonstrated fetal peripheral lymphatic vessels (LVs) using D2-40 immunohistochemistry in a whole female fetus (18 weeks of gestation, CRL 155 mm) except for the head. There were abundant LVs in the thyroid gland, lung, stomach, small intestine, rectum and pancreas, whereas no LVs were seen in the parathyroid gland, spleen and adrenal cortex. In the liver, except for the gallbladder bed, LVs were still restricted to around hilar thick portal veins and around the hepatic vein terminals. Subcutaneous LVs were well developed throughout the body even in areas where no or few perforating LVs connected with the deep LVs. The diaphragm contained abundant, dilated LVs in the pleural half of its thickness. LVs were also seen not only along supplying arteries of muscles and cartilage but also along the epimysium and perichondrium. LVs ran in a space between the obliquus internus and transversus abdominis but not between the obliquus internus and obliquus externus. Some tight connective tissues such as the sacrotuberous ligament contained abundant LVs. The intervertebral foramen contained a lymphatic plexus. The present observations provide a better understanding of peripheral lymphatic development. The fetal lymphatic morphology seems not to represent a mini-version of the adult morphology. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Source

Katori Y.,Tohoku University | Cho B.H.,Chonbuk National University | Song C.H.,Chonbuk National University | Fujimiya M.,Sapporo Medical University | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Anatomy | Year: 2010

Background: A craniocaudal transition from smooth to striated muscle occurs in the fetal mouse esophagus muscularis propria, until finally the entire muscle component becomes striated. Although no such investigation has been conducted using human fetuses, the transition appears to be incomplete. Methods: In horizontal sections of 10 human fetuses between 9 and 16 weeks of gestation, we identified immunoreactivity for smooth muscle actin (SMA), striated muscle myosin heavy chain (MyH), desmin, PGP9.5, S100 protein, c-kit, and CD68 in the thoracic esophagus. The TUNEL method was used to identify apoptosis. For comparison, the same immunohistochemistry was conducted using 10 adult esophaguses. Results: In fetuses at all stages examined, a transition zone was found in the upper thoracic esophagus that was attached to the middle one-third of the trachea. In the transition zone, the MyH-positive longitudinal muscle fibers were surrounded by flat, SMA-positive cells, whereas the MyH-positive circular fibers were sometimes located adjacent to the SMA-positive fibers. However, in adults, smooth muscle tended to be clearly separated from striated muscle. The distribution of cells showing immunoreactivity for PGP9.5, S100 or c-kit did not differ between the oral and anal sides of the transition zone. Desmin was positive in the muscularis propria, but negative in the muscularis mucosae. Neither CD68-positive macrophages nor TUNEL-positive cells were present in the esophagus. Conclusions: In the human esophagus, the smooth-to-striated muscle transition appears to stop at the mid-thoracic level. Cell death or transdifferentiation of smooth muscle appears unlikely, but phenotypic transformation into desmin-positive myofibroblasts is a possibility. © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. Source

Jin Z.W.,Chonbuk National University | Cho B.H.,Chonbuk National University | Murakami G.,Iwamizawa Koujin kai Hospital | Fujimiya M.,Sapporo Medical University | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Anatomy | Year: 2010

The retrohepatic inferior vena cava (IVC) is commonly considered to originate from the right vitelline or omphalomesenteric vein. In contrast, Alexander Barry hypothesized that one of the hepatic veins grows to merge with the subcardinal vein and develops into the retrohepatic IVC. We re-examined fetal development of the retrohepatic IVC and other related veins using serial histological sections of 20 human fetuses between 6 and 16 weeks of gestation. At 6-7 weeks, when a basic configuration of the portal-hepatic vein systems had just been established, one of hepatic veins (i.e., the posterocaudal vein in the present study) had grown caudally to reach the posterocaudal surface of the liver, and notably, extended into the primitive right adrenal gland (five of the eight early-staged fetuses). Because the inferior right hepatic vein (IRHV) and retrohepatic IVC appeared at the same developmental stage, it is likely that any peripheral remnants of the posterocaudal vein would continue to function as primary drainage territory for the IRHV. The caudate vein developed rapidly in accordance with marked caudal and leftward extension of Spiegel's lobe at 12-16 weeks. Thin accessory hepatic veins developed later than the caudate vein and IRHV. The present results supported Barry's hypothesis. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Katori Y.,Sendai Medical Hospital | Shibata S.,Health Sciences University of Hokkaido | Kawase T.,Tohoku University | Cho B.H.,Chonbuk National University | Murakami G.,Iwamizawa Koujin kai Hospital
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal | Year: 2012

Objective: Transient immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase, which mediates the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to dihydroxyphenylalanine, in the midline epithelial seam between the bilateral palatal shelves was investigated in human fetuses. Materials and Methods: Horizontal or frontal paraffin sections of two human fetuses at 9 and 15 weeks of gestation were used to examine the distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells in regions of the entire head other than the brain. Immunohistochemical staining for S100 protein, calretinin, cytokeratin 14, and vimentin was examined using adjacent or near sections. Results: Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells were large and densely distributed in the midline epithelial seam at the site of palatal fusion in fetuses at 9 weeks but not in fetuses at 15 weeks, in which the midline epithelial seam had already disappeared. No expression of S100 protein, calretinin, or vimentin was detected, but the midline epithelial seam was positive for cytokeratin 14. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity was not detected in epithelia during the process of palatal fusion in mice from E 14.0 to 15.0. Conclusions: These findings indicate that tyrosine hydroxylase- immunoreactive cells in the midline epithelial seams are nonneural epithelial cells and suggest that the tyrosine hydroxylase is a novel factor involved in normal palatal formation, especially the fate of the midline epithelial seam in humans. © Copyright 2012 American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association. Source

Cho K.H.,Wonkwang University | Cheong J.S.,Wonkwang University | Ha Y.S.,Wonkwang University | Cho B.H.,Chonbuk National University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Anatomy | Year: 2012

Using D2-40 immunohistochemistry, we assessed the distribution of peripheral lymphatic vessels (LVs) in the head-and-neck region of four midterm fetuses without nuchal edema, two of 10weeks and two of 15weeks' gestation. We observed abundant LVs in the subcutaneous layer, especially in and along the facial muscles. In the occipital region, only a few LVs were identified perforating the back muscles. The parotid and thyroid glands were surrounded by LVs, but the sublingual and submandibular glands were not. The numbers of submucosal LVs increased from 10 to 15weeks' gestation in all of the nasal, oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cavities, but not in the palate. The laryngeal submucosa had an extremely high density of LVs. In contrast, we found few LVs along bone and cartilage except for those of the mandible as well as along the pharyngotympanic tube, middle ear, tooth germ, and the cranial nerves and ganglia. Some of these results suggested that cerebrospinal fluid outflow to the head LVs commences after 15weeks' gestation. The subcutaneous LVs of the head appear to grow from the neck side, whereas initial submucosal LVs likely develop in situ because no communication was evident with other sites during early developmental stages. In addition, CD68-positive macrophages did not accompany the developing LVs. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Source

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