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Iwamizawa, Japan

Hinata N.,Kobe University | Murakami G.,Iwamizawa Kojin kai Hospital | Miyake H.,Kobe University | Abe S.-I.,University of Tokyo | Fujisawa M.,Kobe University
Journal of Urology | Year: 2015

Purpose: We identified the cavernous nerve mesh that exists caudal or posterior to the periprostatic region between the bilateral slings of the levator ani. We also assessed whether nonnerve sparing radical prostatectomy could be modified. Materials and Methods: Using histological sections from 24 elderly cadavers we investigated nerve anatomy by immunohistochemistry for S100 protein, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and tyrosine hydroxylase. Results: The cavernous nerve mesh formed a U-shaped column attached to the lateral and posterior aspects of the rhabdosphincter. It was greater than 10 mm thick along the anteroposterior axis and 5 to 10 mm wide from the lateral margin of the rhabdosphincter. Composite neuronal nitric oxide synthase positive nerves ran obliquely with a highly tortuous course. The anterior margin of the nerve mesh corresponded to the anterior margin of the rhabdosphincter. Nerve mesh left-right communication was seen at and near the anterior margin. Bilateral periprostatic nerves joined posterior to the urethra and immediately anterior to the rectourethralis muscle, forming a midsagittal nerve mesh corresponding to the base of the U. The periprostatic nerves also formed a mesh or bundle but it was much thinner and smaller than the U-shaped mesh along the rhabdosphincter. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase positive nerves consistently contained tyrosine hydroxylase positive sympathetic nerve fibers but there were few vasoactive intestinal polypeptide positive fibers. The pudendal nerve and its branches were negative for neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Conclusions: Bilateral resection of the neurovascular bundle does not remove all cavernous nerves because these nerves cover the rhabdosphincter and perirectum caudal to the level of the apex of the prostate. © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Source

Katori Y.,Sendai Municipal Hospital | Kiyokawa H.,Tohoku University | Kawase T.,Tohoku University | Murakami G.,Iwamizawa Kojin kai Hospital | Cho B.H.,Chonbuk National University
Acta Oto-Laryngologica | Year: 2011

Conclusion. CD34-positive mesenchymal tissues are likely to play a critical role in the pattern formation of laryngeal and pharyngeal walls. In the ear, nose, and throat regions, a future clinical relevance may be found in their use for muscle repair and regeneration. Objectives. CD34 is a well-known marker of progenitor cells of blood vessels and stromal tissues. Thus, CD34-positive cells have recently been used clinically in the field of vascular and orthopedic biotechnology because of their capacity to assist regeneration of injured tissues. However, to our knowledge, the in situ distribution of CD34-positive cells has not yet been described in the human fetus, with the exception of a few organs. The purpose of this study was to describe the location of CD34-positive cells in the head and neck regions. Methods: Immunohistochemistry for CD34 was carried out using seven human fetuses (12 and 15 weeks of gestation). Results: CD34-positive structures showed a vessel-like appearance and were regularly arrayed along the nasal, oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal mucosal epithelia, whereas in the laryngeal and pharyngeal striated muscles they were distributed diffusely as fibrous tissues such as the fascia and perimysium. © 2011 Informa Healthcare. Source

Osanai H.,Sapporo Medical University | Rodriguez-Vazquez J.F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Abe H.,Akita University | Murakami G.,Iwamizawa Kojin kai Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2011

PURPOSE. There seems to be little or no information about the morphology of the fetal eye check ligament. METHODS. The authors examined longitudinal and cross-histologic sections from the large collection of human fetuses at Universidad Complutense, Madrid. RESULTS. In longitudinal sections from 20 fetuses (four at each of 12, 15, 20, 25, and 30 weeks of gestation), a distinct connective tissue band was found connecting the medial and lateral recti and the limbus of the conjunctiva (sites at and around the lateral and medial angles of the conjunctival space). Silver impregnation revealed that the muscle endomysium (type 4 collagen dominant) was connected with composite fibers of the band (type 1 collagen). The cross-sections from three fetuses (20 weeks) exhibited a site-dependent difference in the rectus sheaths: the orbital-sided sheath suddenly increased in thickness when it tightly attached to the muscle bundles. The attaching orbital-sided muscle bundles reached 14% to 15% (or 18%-20%) in the cross-sectional area of the MR (or the LR). CONCLUSIONS. Taken together, the distinct connective tissue band extending to the conjunctiva was "originated from" the MR and LR rather than from a part of the muscles inserting into the connective tissue band. This band was most likely a primitive form of the check ligament. The authors hypothesize that the primitive check ligament conducts muscle tension to the conjunctiva to coordinate growth patterns between the anterior and posterior sides of the eyeball. This hypothesis may support en bloc recession for infantile esotropia. © 2011 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc. Source

Rodriguez-Vazquez J.F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Verdugo-Lopez S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Murakami G.,Iwamizawa Kojin kai Hospital
Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy | Year: 2011

Purpose: The present study describes the venous drainage, especially, that via the so-called Serres' vein, from border areas between two different types of ossifications: the endochondral ossification of Meckel's cartilage in close topographical relation with the membranous ossification of the mandible. Methods: Frontal and transverse sections of 25 human fetuses between 8 and 16 weeks of post-conception development. All sections were stained with hematoxylin, and eosin and azan. Results: At 9 weeks, a distinct vein (Serres' vein) is seen originating from the endochondral ossification of Meckel's cartilage. At 11 weeks, the vein collects blood sinusoids from both the endochondral and membranous ossification areas. At 12 weeks the vein accompanies a definite bony canal, the Serres' canal. The vein does not extend anteriorly beyond a level of the deciduous canine germ that was located anterior to the mental foramen. Notably, up to 12 weeks, the vein becomes clearly isolated from the inferior alveolar nerve, artery, and vein. Conclusion: Serres' vein seems to be a unique drainage route of ossification, not of the tooth germ, and is similar to veins at the usual diaphysis of a long bone. Although the Serres' canal had been termed "canal of the deciduous dentition", there appears to be no topographical relation with deciduous germs. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Rodriguez-Vazquez J.F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Murakami G.,Iwamizawa Kojin kai Hospital | Verdugo-Lopez S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Abe S.-I.,Tokyo Dental College | Fujimiya M.,Sapporo Medical University
Journal of Anatomy | Year: 2011

Closure of the middle ear is believed to be closely related to the evolutionary development of the mammalian jaw. However, few comprehensive descriptions are available on fetal development. We examined paraffin-embedded specimens of 20 mid-term human fetuses at 8-25weeks of ovulation age (crown-rump length or CRL, 38-220mm). After 9weeks, the tympanic bone and the squamous part of the temporal bone, each of which was cranial or caudal to Meckel's cartilage, grew to close the lateral part of the tympanosquamosal fissure. At the same time, the cartilaginous tegmen tympani appeared independently of the petrous part of the temporal bone and resulted in the petrosquamosal fissure. Subsequently, the medial part of the tympanosquamosal fissure was closed by the descent of a cartilaginous inferior process of the tegmen tympani. When Meckel's cartilage changed into the sphenomandibular ligament and the anterior ligament of the malleus, the inferior process of the tegmen tympani interposed between the tympanic bone and the squamous part of the temporal bone, forming the petrotympanic fissure for the chorda tympani nerve and the discomalleolar ligament. Therefore, we hypothesize that, in accordance with the regression of Meckel's cartilage, the rapidly growing temporomandibular joint provided mechanical stress that accelerated the growth and descent of the inferior process of the tegmen tympani via the discomalleolar ligament. The usual diagram showing bony fissures around the tegmen tympani may overestimate the role of the tympanic bone in the fetal middle-ear closure. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Source

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