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Iwamizawa, Japan

Asakawa S.,Tokyo Dental College | Yamamoto M.,Tokyo Dental College | Katori Y.,Tohoku University | Murakami G.,Iwamizawa Asuka Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Anatomy and Cell Biology | Year: 2015

We examined morphological differences between the sublingual and submandibular glands with special reference to their innervation. The sublingual gland contained abundant periodic acid Schiff-positive mucous acini: some lobules were composed of purely mucous acini, while others were purely serous or mixed. However, in the submandibular gland, the area of mucous acini was very limited. Notably, in the sublingual gland, immunohistochemistry for neuron-specific enolase demonstrated that the serous acini carried a higher density of nerve elements than the mucous acini. However, no such difference was evident in the submandibular gland, possibly due to the small areas of the mucous acini. In both types of gland, neuronal nitric oxide synthase-positive parasympathetic nerves as well as tyrosine hydroxylase-positive sympathetic nerves were observed in the interlobular tissue, but we were unable to trace these thin fibers to the acini. Myoepithelial cells expressed smooth muscle actin, but were negative for S100B protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein and neuron-specific enolase. However, antibody against S100A stained some of the myoepithelial cells and ductal cells in the sublingual gland. Cells positive for peripheral myelin protein 22 were seen in some of the ductal cells in the submandibular gland, but not in the sublingual gland. Therefore, with regard to the neurogenic features of the gland cells, S100B reactivity might disappear first in postnatal life, whereas S100A reactivity is likely to remain as aging progresses. The sublingual gland in elderly individuals seems to provide a good model for comparison of the nerve supply between mucous and serous acini. © 2015.

Jang H.S.,Wonkwang University | Cho K.H.,Wonkwang University | Chang H.,Wonkwang University | Jin Z.W.,Yanbian University | And 2 more authors.
Pediatric Neurosurgery | Year: 2016

Previous studies have suggested that secondary neurulation provides no functional neurons but only the filum terminale. However, no studies have confirmed that the coccygeal and lower sacral nerves do not originate from the secondary neural tube but only from the primary tube. To obtain a better understanding of these relationships, we examined sagittal or frontal sections from 20 embryonic and fetal specimens ranging from 6 to 14 weeks of gestation. During the growth of the vertebral column as well as the subsequent upward migration of the caudal end of the dural sac, the secondary neural tube was stretched to maintain the original attachment to the coccyx or the lower sacral vertebra. The filum-like structure showed much individual variability but in all cases appeared to be derived from the stretched neural tube. Intermediate age morphology revealed that the secondary neural tube itself provided an initial filum terminale before the ascent of the dural sac. Given that the coccygeal and lower sacral nerves are likely to originate from the secondary neural tube, these parts of the tube persisted and differentiated into spinal neurons to form the anococcygeal nerves. Likewise, the filum terminale was also most likely to contain some neurons that persisted postnatally. Depending on the timing and site of degeneration of the secondary neural tube, individual variations could occur in proportion to the amount of sensory and motor elements in the anococcygeal nerve supply. © 2015 S. Karger AG.

Kawamoto-Hirano A.,Tohoku University | Honkura Y.,Tohoku University | Shibata S.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University | Abe S.-I.,Tokyo Dental College | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology | Year: 2016

Objective: To clarify composite fibers and cells in the synovial tissues of the cricoarytenoid joint (CA joint). Methods: Routine histology and immunohistrochemistry using sagittal or nearly sagittal sections obtained from 18 elderly cadaveric specimens. Results: The CA joint capsule was thin and contained few elastic fibers. A limited supportive ligament, namely, a thickened fascia of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles, was sometimes evident on the lateral aspect of the CA joint. However, even in the weaker medial aspect of the joint, no marked destruction of the synovial tissues was found. The CA joint always contained synovial folds-a short medial fold and long lateral folds-but these contained no or few macrophages, lymphocytes, and blood capillaries. In 2 exceptional specimens showing inflammatory cell infiltration in the submucosal tissue of the larynx, the macrophage-rich area extended toward the capsule and medial synovial fold. Conclusions: The lateral aspect of the CA joint was likely to be supported mechanically by the muscle-associated tissues. Strong support of the arytenoid by muscles might reduce the degree of CA joint injury with age. However, some patients with hoarseness due to mucosal inflammation of the larynx might have accompanying synovitis and subsequent cartilage injury in the CA joint. © The Author(s) 2015.

Jin Z.W.,Yanbian University | Hata F.,Doto Hospital | Jin Y.,Yanbian University | Murakami G.,Iwamizawa Asuka Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Anatomy | Year: 2015

The term "anococcygeal ligament (ACL)" has been used to refer to two distinct structures: a superficial fibrous band originating from the myosepta of the external anal sphincter (EAS) and running upwards to the coccyx (the superficial ACL); and a deep fibrous band originating from the periosteum of the coccyx, merging with the thick presacral fascia and attaching to the superior end of the EAS (the deep ACL). In the present work, elastic fiber histology and muscle immunohistochemistry of sagittal sections obtained from 15 donated elderly male cadavers showed that superficial ACL, corresponding to a superficial fascia or skin ligament, was composed of very tortuous elastic fibers, with a fine elastic fiber mesh at their coccygeal attachment; whereas the deep ACL was composed of almost straight collagen and elastic fibers, intermingled with the coccygeal periosteum. Due to the weak insertion into the coccyx and the wavy course, the superficial ACL is unlikely to provide, even in association with contraction of the longitudinal anal muscle, a stable mechanical support to maintain the configuration of the EAS. Being similar to the suspensory ligament of breast, tissue repair of the skin ligament would not have a mechanical role. In contrast, the deep ACL, in association with the thick presacral fascia, likely plays a role in maintaining a suitable positioning of the anorectum to the coccyx. However, their relative lack of smooth muscles compared with rich elastic fibers indicates that both ACLs may become permanently overextended under conditions of long-term mechanical stress. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Kim J.H.,Chonbuk National University | Hwang S.E.,Daejeon Sun Hospital | Rodriguez-Vazquez J.F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Murakami G.,Iwamizawa Asuka Hospital | Cho B.H.,Chonbuk National University
Anatomy and Cell Biology | Year: 2014

In the embryonic heart, the primitive atrium is considered to receive the bilateral sinus horns including the upper terminal of the inferior vena cava (IVC). To reveal topographical anatomy of the embryonic venous pole of the heart, we examined horizontal serial paraffin sections of 15 human embryos with crown-rump length 9-31 mm, corresponding to a gestational age of 6-7 weeks or Carnegie stage 14-16. The IVC was often fixed to the developing right pulmonary vein by a mesentery-like fibrous tissue. Rather than the terminal portion of the future superior vena cava, the IVC contributed to form a right-sided atrial lumen at the stage. The sinus venosus or its left horn communicated with the IVC in earlier specimens, but in later specimens, the left atrium extended caudally to separate the sinus and IVC. In contrast, the right atrium consistently extended far caudally, even below the sinus horn, along the IVC. A small (or large) attachment between the left (or right) atrium and IVC in adult hearts seemed to be derived from the left (or right) sinus valve. This hypothesis did not contradict with the incorporation theory of the sinus valves into the atrial wall. Variations in topographical anatomy around the IVC, especially of the sinus valves, might not always depend on the stages but partly in individual differences. © 2014. Anatomy&Cell Biology.

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