Jang H.S.,Wonkwang University |
Cho K.H.,Wonkwang University |
Chang H.,Wonkwang University |
Jin Z.W.,Yanbian University |
And 2 more authors.
Pediatric Neurosurgery | Year: 2016
Previous studies have suggested that secondary neurulation provides no functional neurons but only the filum terminale. However, no studies have confirmed that the coccygeal and lower sacral nerves do not originate from the secondary neural tube but only from the primary tube. To obtain a better understanding of these relationships, we examined sagittal or frontal sections from 20 embryonic and fetal specimens ranging from 6 to 14 weeks of gestation. During the growth of the vertebral column as well as the subsequent upward migration of the caudal end of the dural sac, the secondary neural tube was stretched to maintain the original attachment to the coccyx or the lower sacral vertebra. The filum-like structure showed much individual variability but in all cases appeared to be derived from the stretched neural tube. Intermediate age morphology revealed that the secondary neural tube itself provided an initial filum terminale before the ascent of the dural sac. Given that the coccygeal and lower sacral nerves are likely to originate from the secondary neural tube, these parts of the tube persisted and differentiated into spinal neurons to form the anococcygeal nerves. Likewise, the filum terminale was also most likely to contain some neurons that persisted postnatally. Depending on the timing and site of degeneration of the secondary neural tube, individual variations could occur in proportion to the amount of sensory and motor elements in the anococcygeal nerve supply. © 2015 S. Karger AG.
PubMed | Complutense University of Madrid, Chonbuk National University, Seonam University, Fukuoka Dental College and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007) | Year: 2016
The incisive canal of the incisive bone or premaxilla is a narrow bony canal through which pass the nasopalatine nerve and its concomitant vessels. However, its fetal development remains obscure. To assess its development, serial frontal sections of the heads of 26 human fetuses, of gestational age 9-20 weeks (crown-rump length, 46-183 mm), were examined. The nerve initially passed through a wide loose tissue space, but after ossification of the upper part of the incisive bone at 12-15 weeks, the canal became narrow and filled with tight fibrous tissue. Canals in seven fetuses were dilated and open unilaterally or bilaterally. In two of these seven fetuses, a nasopalatine duct passed through the canal and connected the nasal cavity to a central lumen of the paramedian epithelial pearl in the incisive fossa (not to an oral cavity). Even if the canal was closed, the duct was likely to remain above and below the closed part. Paramedian pearls were present in all specimens larger than 110 mm (15 weeks), with or without association of midline pearls. These paramedian pearls usually protruded toward and/or extended into the dilated or open canal, suggesting that these pearls, not any primitive oronasal communication pathway, contributed to keeping the canal open. The dilated canal, located on the superomedial side of the second and third teeth buds, seemed to be usually closed by further ossification. Even in fetuses, the nasopalatine duct seemed to be a variant or unusual phase of development temporally occurring after normal palate fusion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Kobe University, Akita University, Yanbian University, Complutense University of Madrid and Iwamizawa Asuka Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Anatomy & cell biology | Year: 2017
Because the ureter arises from the mesonephric or Wolffian duct (WD), the WD opening should migrate inferiorly along the urogenital sinus or future urethra. However, this process of descent has not been evaluated morphometrically in previous studies and we know little about intermediate morphologies for the descent. In the present work, serial sagittal sections of 15 specimens at gestational age 6-12 weeks and serial horizontal sections of 20 specimens at 6-10 weeks were analyzed. Monitoring of horizontal sections showed that, until 9 weeks, a heart-, lozenge- or oval-shape of the initial urogenital sinus remained in the bladder and urethra. Thus, the future bladder and urethra could not be distinguished by the transverse section or plane. The maximum width of the urogenital sinus or bladder at 6-10 weeks was 0.8 mm, although its supero-inferior length reached 5 mm at 10 weeks. During earlier stages, however, the medial shift of the WD was rather evident. Depending on the extent of upward growth of the bladder smooth muscle, the descent of the vas deferens became evident at 10-12 weeks. Development of the urethral rhabdosphincter likely resulted in the differentiation of urogenital sinus into the urethra and bladder before formation of the bladder neck with 3-layered smooth muscles. Development of the prostate followed these morphological changes, later accelerating the further descent of the WD opening. Because of their close topographical relationships, slight anomalies or accidents of the umbilical cord at 10-12 weeks may have a significant effect on normal anatomy.
PubMed | Complutense University of Madrid, Chonbuk National University, Daejeon Sun Hospital, Iwamizawa Asuka Hospital and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of colorectal disease | Year: 2016
The anal sinuses, small furrows above the pectinate line, sometimes form perianal abscesses in adults. We examined the pattern of fetal growth of the anal sinus and sphincters using 22 mid-term (8-18 weeks) and 6 late-stage (30-38 weeks) fetuses.In mid-term fetuses, the external and internal sphincters gradually increased in thickness, depending on specimen size (from 0.2 to 1.5 mm), whereas the anteroposterior diameter of the anal canal at the epithelial junction was relatively stable (0.5-1.0 mm) irrespective of specimen size. Anal canal diameter increased less than twofold between mid-term and late-stage fetuses, from 0.5-1.0 to almost 2 mm, whereas sphincter thickness increased over tenfold, from 0.2-1.5 to almost 3.5 mm. The anal sinus often showed balloon-like enlargement when the sphincter muscle bundles were tightly packed in mid-term, but not in late-stage fetuses.Large concentric mechanical stress from the sphincters in late-stage fetuses apparently prevented the anal sinus from expanding in a balloon-like manner. Conversely, to avoid anal stenosis, the growing sinuses maintained a luminal space of the anal canal in response to stress from rapidly growing sphincters. The inferiorly extending sinus usually provided temporal double canals separated by a thick column. In the presence of double lumens, anal canal duplication is likely to develop without any abnormalities of the anal epithelium and sphincters.
PubMed | Tokyo Dental College, Chonbuk National University, Iwamizawa Asuka Hospital, Complutense University of Madrid and Tohoku University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation | Year: 2016
A cecum-like protrusion of the pharynx (the laryngeal cecum or vestibular recess [VR]) develops immediately anterior to the laryngeal part of the respiratory diverticulum. An expansion of the VR has been well described, whereas the fate of the diverticulum is still obscure, although its pharyngeal opening corresponds to the glottis. We observed sagittal sections of 10 embryos (five specimens at 5-6weeks and another five at 7-8weeks) and eight fetuses at 25-30weeks. At 5-6weeks, a lumen of the laryngeal part of the respiratory diverticulum appeared, and subsequently, the VR opened into the epithelial lamina. Because of this discrete separation, it seemed unlikely that the pharyngeal pouches contributed to the laryngeal epithelium. At 6-7weeks, the VR exhibited a high boot-shaped lumen with canalization to the diverticular lumen at the level of the cricoid cartilage. Thus, in a midline area between the bilateral arytenoid cartilages, double laryngeal lumina were evident, separated by the thick midline epithelial lamina. At 25-30weeks, the inferior part of the VR lumen had become enlarged because of the destruction of the epithelial lamina along the arytenoid and corniculate cartilages. In contrast, candidates for the initial diverticular lumen remained as epithelial slits in the anterosuperior side of the transverse arytenoid muscle. Therefore, the final anterior and lateral laryngeal walls seemed to originate from the VR with canalization, in contrast to the part of the posterior wall derived from the initial diverticular wall.
Asakawa S.,Tokyo Dental College |
Yamamoto M.,Tokyo Dental College |
Katori Y.,Tohoku University |
Murakami G.,Iwamizawa Asuka Hospital |
And 3 more authors.
Anatomy and Cell Biology | Year: 2015
We examined morphological differences between the sublingual and submandibular glands with special reference to their innervation. The sublingual gland contained abundant periodic acid Schiff-positive mucous acini: some lobules were composed of purely mucous acini, while others were purely serous or mixed. However, in the submandibular gland, the area of mucous acini was very limited. Notably, in the sublingual gland, immunohistochemistry for neuron-specific enolase demonstrated that the serous acini carried a higher density of nerve elements than the mucous acini. However, no such difference was evident in the submandibular gland, possibly due to the small areas of the mucous acini. In both types of gland, neuronal nitric oxide synthase-positive parasympathetic nerves as well as tyrosine hydroxylase-positive sympathetic nerves were observed in the interlobular tissue, but we were unable to trace these thin fibers to the acini. Myoepithelial cells expressed smooth muscle actin, but were negative for S100B protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein and neuron-specific enolase. However, antibody against S100A stained some of the myoepithelial cells and ductal cells in the sublingual gland. Cells positive for peripheral myelin protein 22 were seen in some of the ductal cells in the submandibular gland, but not in the sublingual gland. Therefore, with regard to the neurogenic features of the gland cells, S100B reactivity might disappear first in postnatal life, whereas S100A reactivity is likely to remain as aging progresses. The sublingual gland in elderly individuals seems to provide a good model for comparison of the nerve supply between mucous and serous acini. © 2015.
PubMed | Tohoku University, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Iwamizawa Asuka Hospital and Tokyo Dental College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology | Year: 2016
To clarify composite fibers and cells in the synovial tissues of the cricoarytenoid joint (CA joint).Routine histology and immunohistrochemistry using sagittal or nearly sagittal sections obtained from 18 elderly cadaveric specimens.The CA joint capsule was thin and contained few elastic fibers. A limited supportive ligament, namely, a thickened fascia of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles, was sometimes evident on the lateral aspect of the CA joint. However, even in the weaker medial aspect of the joint, no marked destruction of the synovial tissues was found. The CA joint always contained synovial folds--a short medial fold and long lateral folds--but these contained no or few macrophages, lymphocytes, and blood capillaries. In 2 exceptional specimens showing inflammatory cell infiltration in the submucosal tissue of the larynx, the macrophage-rich area extended toward the capsule and medial synovial fold.The lateral aspect of the CA joint was likely to be supported mechanically by the muscle-associated tissues. Strong support of the arytenoid by muscles might reduce the degree of CA joint injury with age. However, some patients with hoarseness due to mucosal inflammation of the larynx might have accompanying synovitis and subsequent cartilage injury in the CA joint.
PubMed | Tokyo Dental College, Iwamizawa Asuka Hospital and Tohoku University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Anatomy & cell biology | Year: 2016
Macrophages play an important role in aging-related muscle atrophy (i.e., sarcopenia). We examined macrophage density in six striated muscles (cricopharyngeus muscle, posterior cricoarytenoideus muscle, genioglossus muscle, masseter muscle, infraspinatus muscle, and external anal sphincter). We examined 14 donated male cadavers and utilized CD68 immunohistochemistry to clarify macrophage density in muscles. The numbers of macrophages per striated muscle fiber in the larynx and pharynx (0.34 and 0.31) were 5-6 times greater than those in the tongue, shoulder, and anus (0.05-0.07) with high statistical significance. Thick muscle fibers over 80 m in diameter were seen in the pharynx, larynx, and anal sphincter of two limited specimens. Conversely, in the other sites or specimens, muscle fibers were thinner than 50 m. We did not find any multinuclear muscle cells suggestive of regeneration. At the beginning of the study, we suspected that mucosal macrophages might have invaded into the muscle layer of the larynx and pharynx, but we found no evidence of inflammation in the mucosa. Likewise, the internal anal sphincter (a smooth muscle layer near the mucosa) usually contained fewer macrophages than the external sphincter. The present result suggest that, in elderly men, thinning and death of striated muscle fibers occur more frequently in the larynx and pharynx than in other parts of the body.
PubMed | Tohoku University, Akita University, Iwamizawa Asuka Hospital and Tokyo Dental College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation | Year: 2016
The present study aimed to clarify individual variations in the cricothyroid joint (CT joint).Using 30 specimens of the CT joint obtained from elderly donated cadavers, we examined the composite fibers of the capsular ligament as well as the morphology of the synovial tissue.The capsular ligament consistently contained abundant thick elastic fiber bundles on the anterior side of the joint (anterior band) and an elastic fiber-made mesh on the posterior side (posterior mesh). The synovial membrane, lined by synovial macrophages, was usually restricted to the recesses in the medial or inferior end of the joint cavity. Without the synovial lining, elastic fibers of the capsular ligament were subsequently detached, dispersed, and exposed to the joint cavity. We also observed a folded and thickened synovial membrane and a hypertrophic protrusion of the capsular ligament. In six specimens, the joint cavity was obliterated by debris of synovial folds and elastic fiber-rich tissues continuous with the usual capsular ligament. Notably, with the exception of two specimens, we did not find lymphocyte infiltration in the degenerative synovial tissue.We considered the CT joint degeneration to be a specific, silent form of osteoarthritis from the absence of lymphocyte infiltration. For high-pitched phonation, the elderly CT joint seemed to maintain its anterior gliding and rotation with the aid of elastic fiber-rich tissues compensating for the loss of congruity between the joint cartilage surfaces. Conversely, however, high-pitched phonation may accelerate obliteration of the joint.
Kim J.H.,Chonbuk National University |
Jin Z.W.,Yanbian University |
Murakami G.,Iwamizawa Asuka Hospital |
Cho B.H.,Chonbuk National University
Anatomy and Cell Biology | Year: 2016
Fetal development of the face involves a specific type of cornification in which keratinocytes provide a mass or plug to fill a cavity. The epithelial-mesenchymal interaction was likely to be different from that in the usual skin. We examined expression of intermediate filaments and other mesenchymal markers beneath cornification in the fetal face. Using sections from 5 mid-term human fetuses at 14-16 weeks, immunohistochemistry was conducted for cytokeratins (CK), vimentin, nestin, glial fibrilary acidic protein, desmin, CD34, CD68 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Fetal zygomatic skin was composed of a thin stratum corneum and a stratum basale (CK5/6+, CK14+, and CK19+) and, as the intermediate layer, 2-3 layered large keratinocytes with nucleus. The basal layer was lined by mono-layered mesenchymal cells (CD34+ and nestin+). Some of basal cells were PCNA-positive. In the keratinocyte plug at the external ear and nose, most cell nuclei expressed PCNA, CK5/6, CK14, and CK19. Vimentin-positive mesenchymal cells migrated into the plug. The PCNA-positive nucleus as well as mesenchymal cell migration was not seen in the lip margin in spite of the thick keratinocyte layer. The lingual epithelium were characterized by the CK7-positive stratum corneum as well as the thick mesenchymal papilla. CD68-positive macrophages were absent in the epidermis/epithelium. Being different from usual cornification of the skin, loss of a mesenchymal monolayer as well as superficial migration of mesenchymal cells might connect with a specific differentiation of keratinocyte to provide a plug at the fetal nose and ear. © 2016. Anatomy & Cell Biology.