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Balasubramanian S.,Bangalore University | Ganesh D.,Academy of Graduate Studies | Panchal P.,Academy of Graduate Studies | Teimouri M.,Academy of Graduate Studies | Surya Narayana V.V.S.,IVRI
Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2014

Emblica officinalis Gaertn is a medicinal plant commonly called as Amla or Indian Gooseberry belongs to Euphorbiaceae family. Its leaves and fruits are traditionally used for fever, hemorrhage, diarrhea, dysentery and inflammatory treatments. The present study was carried out to identify the phytocomponents present in the methanolic extract of the leaves of Emblica officinalis by GC-MS analysis. From the GC-MS results four compounds were identified as major constituents, they are 1, 2, 3-benzenetriol (synonym: Pyrogallol), 2- Furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethyl) - (synonym: 5-hydroxymethylfurfural), 2-Acetyl-5-methylfuran (synonym: 5-methyl-2-furylmethyl ketone), Benzoic acid, 3, 4, 5-trihydroxy- (synonym: Gallic-acid). © 2014, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. All rights reserved.

Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The present investigation was undertaken on the utilization of alternate flours/meals (rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) for the preparation of gluten free cookies as compared to conventional wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour cookies. The physicochemical parameters, sensory qualities and functional properties of flours/cookies were studied and compared with control cookies. The blend of maize and pearl millet had best pasting qualities followed by blend of pearl millet and sorghum flour. The control cookies showed a higher yield (186.8%) but stronger peak force (2.69 kg). The cookies prepared from rice and maize combination had highest spread ratio whereas, the lowest spread ratio was observed in rice and sorghum combination. The cookies with pearl millet and sorghum flour combination had higher fat, protein, ash and calorific values as compared to control cookies. The maximum sensory overall acceptability scores were found for cookies prepared from combination of pearl millet and sorghum flour followed by rice and sorghum, maize and sorghum, rice and maize, maize and pearl millet, rice and pearl millet and control cookies. All gluten free cookies had higher nutritional value as compared to control cookies and were acceptable by panelists. © 2011 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).

Balasubramanian S.,Bangalore University | Ganesh D.,Academy of Graduate Studies | Surya Narayana V.V.S.,IVRI
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2014

Azadirachta indica, is locally called as "Neem" belongs to the family Meliaceae. "Neem" is a medicinal herb traditionally used for the treatment of Diabetes, leprosy and Respiratory diseases. The present study was carried out to identify the phytocomponents present in the methanolic extract of the leaves of Azadirachta indica by GC-MS analysis. From the GC-MS results five compounds were identified as major constituents, they are Phytol, Linolenic acid, Homo-γ-linolenic acid, Palmitic acid and Tridecylic acid.

Context and objective: The molecular characterization of local isolates of Toxoplasma gondii is considered significant so as to assess the homologous variations between the different loci of various strains of parasites. Design and setting: The present communication deals with the molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the 1158 bp entire open reading frame (ORF) of surface antigen 3 (SAG3) of two Indian T. gondii isolates (Chennai and Izatnagar) being maintained as cryostock at the IVRI. Method: The surface antigen 3 (SAG3) of two local Indian isolates were cloned and sequenced before being compared with the available published sequences. Results: The sequence comparison analysis revealed 99.9% homology with the standard published RH strain sequence of T. gondii. The strains were also compared with other established published sequences and found to be most related to the P-Br strain and CEP strain (both 99.3%), and least with PRU strain (98.4%). However, the two Indian isolates had 100% homology between them. Conclusion: Finally, it was concluded that the Indian isolates were closer to the RH strain than to the P-Br strain (Brazilian strain), the CEP strain and the PRU strains (USA), with respect to nucleotide homology. The two Indian isolates used in the present study are known to vary between themselves, as far as homologies related to other genes are concerned, but they were found to be 100% homologous as far as SAG3 locus is concerned. This could be attributed to the fact that this SAG3 might be a conserved locus and thereby, further detailed studies are thereby warranted to exploit the use of this particular molecule in diagnostics and immunoprophylactics. The findings are important from the point of view of molecular phylogeny. © 2015, Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo. All rights reserved.

Ramakrishnan S.,Immunology Section | Annamalai A.,Immunology Section | Sachan S.,Immunology Section | Kumar A.,Immunology Section | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Immunology | Year: 2015

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize conserved molecular structures of invading pathogens and initiate an immune response to curtail the infection prior to the development of more powerful and specific adaptive immunity. Understanding the interactions between different TLRs in terms of immune response genes is a pre-requisite for using various TLR agonists alone or in combination as adjuvants or as stand-alone agents against various diseases. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and resiquimod (R-848) are TLR agonists that are recognized by TLR4 and TLR7, respectively. In this study, the effect of LPS and/or R-848 on chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was investigated. LPS and R-848 synergistically up-regulated the transcripts of interferon-β (IFN-β), IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-1β as compared to the individual response (P<. 0.05). The results indicate that these agonists synergistically interact and enhance type-I IFN, pro-inflammatory cytokine as well as Th1 and Th2 responses in chicken PBMCs, suggesting their potential as an adjuvant candidate to be used in combination with various poultry vaccines. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Chander V.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Nandi S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Ravishankar C.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Upmanyu V.,IVRI | Verma R.,CADRAD
Animal Health Research Reviews | Year: 2014

Classical swine fever (CSF) is one of the most devastating epizootic diseases of pigs, causing high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of clinical signs and similarity in disease manifestations to other diseases make CSF difficult to diagnose with certainty. The disease is further complicated by the presence of a number of different strains belonging to three phylogenetic groups. Advanced diagnostic techniques allow detection of antigens or antibodies in clinical samples, leading to implementation of proper and effective control programs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods, including portable real-time PCR, provide diagnosis in a few hours with precision and accuracy, even at the point of care. The disease is controlled by following a stamping out policy in countries where vaccination is not practiced, whereas immunization with live attenuated vaccines containing the 'C' strain is effectively used to control the disease in endemic countries. To overcome the problem of differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals, different types of marker vaccines, with variable degrees of efficacy, along with companion diagnostic assays have been developed and may be useful in controlling and even eradicating the disease in the foreseeable future. The present review aims to provide an overview and status of CSF as a whole with special reference to swine husbandry in India. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014.

Raina O.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Nagar G.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Varghese A.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Prajitha G.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2011

Gene coding for leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), a metalloprotease, was identified in the tropical liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica; that on sequence analysis showed a close homology (98.6%) with leucine aminopeptidase of the temperate liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica. The recombinant leucine aminopeptidase protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. F. gigantica peroxiredoxin, a hydrogen peroxide scavenger and an immunomodulating protein, was also cloned and expressed in E. coli. A vaccination trial in buffaloes was conducted with these two recombinant proteins, with 150 and 300 μg of leucine aminopeptidase and a cocktail of 150 μg each of recombinant leucine aminopeptidase and peroxiredoxin in three groups, respectively. Both Th1- and Th2-associated humoral immune responses were elicited to immunization with these antigens. A challenge study with 400 metacercariae did not show a significant protection in terms of reduction in the worm burden (8.4%) or anti-fecundity/embryonation effect in the immunized groups, as to the non-immunized control animals. Our observations in this buffalo vaccination trial are contrary to the earlier promise shown by leucine aminopeptidase of F. hepatica as a leading candidate vaccine molecule. Identification of leucine aminopeptidase gene and evaluation of the protein for its protective efficacy in buffaloes is the first scientific report on this protein in F. gigantica. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Sahoo S.P.,IVRI
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2016

The experiment was conducted to study the efficacy of different types of litter amendments on litter quality and broiler performance during winter (December–January). A total number of 180, day-old (Vencobb) broiler chicks were randomly assigned to three equal groups. One bearing control group and other two comprise litter amendments with alum (ATL) and sodium bisulphate (SBTL) treatment groups, each having 60 birds in three replications of 20 numbers for 6 weeks. The findings of the study revealed significant variation (p < .05) in the moisture content and pH of the control and treated litter. This clearly indicates the efficiency of litter treatment products improving the quality of litter thus in turn the ambient environment for the bird. The average body weight was significantly highest (p < .05) in the SBTL group (1912 g) followed closely by the ATL group (1865 g) in comparison to the control group (1822 g) at the end of sixth week. The growing chicks gained significantly (p < .05) more body weight with better FCR, PER, EER and survivability in respective order of succession. The overall hygiene of the broiler chicks was better with less cake formation and without any foot pad dermatitis or breast blister lesion in the treatment groups. Thus it can be concluded that litter amendment with alum (ATL) and sodium bisulphate (SBTL) treatment had significant influence on quality of litter and in turn improved the performances of broiler chicks without any adverse effect. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis

Kumar A.,IVRI | Singh G.,IVRI | Kumar B.V.S.,IVRI | Meur S.K.,IVRI
Livestock Science | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to determine the ameliorative effect of dietary supplementation on heat stress induced oxidative stress in buffalo erythrocytes. Experiments were performed on eight adult buffaloes of either sex divided in two groups of four animals each viz. group I (control), group II (supplemented with sodium bicarbonate, potassium carbonate and ascorbic acid). Animals were exposed to hot dry (40 °C, ambient humidity) and hot humid (37 °C, 70% relative humidity) conditions for 4 h daily for 5. days in psychrometric chamber. Activities catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly (P< 0.05) increased after exposure to heat stress in both groups under hot dry as well as hot humid conditions. Supplemented group showed significant (P< 0.05) fall in CAT, SOD and G6PD activities and levels of GSH and TBARS. The results indicate that supplementation of ascorbate along with salts (sodium bicarbonate, potassium carbonate) was effective in reducing heat stress in buffaloes. © 2011.

Sharma A.K.,IVRI
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2014

The study was conducted to identify SNPs of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in cattle. Total 20 SNPs from the cattle QTL database were selected on the basis of the potential role in Mycobacterium susceptibility and a case: control association study was conducted in cattle. Out of 20 SNPs total 17 SNPs were polymorphic and 3 were monomorphic in population. The SNP (rs41945014) was significantly associated with MAP and revealed that ODDs of GG and GT genotypes verses TT genotype were 1.22 (0.33-4.49; 95% CI) and 3.37 (1.23-9.23; 95% CI), respectively. The proportion of GG and GT genotypes were significantly higher in bovine paratuberculosis positive animals suggested that selection against these 2 genotypes may confer resistance against bovine paratuberculosis. The all other 16 polymorphic SNPs of the present investigation were not differing significantly in case-control animals.

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