Zetterberg L.,IVL Swedish Environmental Reserach Institute Ltd |
Chen D.,Gothenburg University
GCB Bioenergy | Year: 2015
The climate impacts from bioenergy involve an important time aspect. Using forest residues for energy may result in high initial emissions, but net emissions are reduced over time since, if the residues were left on the ground, they would decompose and release CO2 to the atmosphere. This article investigates the climate impacts from bioenergy with special focus on the time aspects. More specifically, we analyze the climate impacts of forest residues and stumps where combustion related emissions are compensated by avoided emissions from leaving them on the ground to decompose. These biofuels are compared with fossil gas and coal. Net emissions are defined as emissions from utilizing the fuel minus emissions from a reference case of no utilization. Climate impacts are estimated using the measures radiative forcing and global average surface temperature. We find that the climate impacts from using forest residues and stumps depend on the decomposition rates and the time perspective over which the analysis is done. Over a 100 year perspective, branches and tops have lower climate impacts than stumps which in turn have lower impacts than fossil gas and coal. Over a 20 year time perspective, branches and tops have lower climate impacts than all other fuels but the relative difference is smaller. However, stumps have slightly higher climate impacts over 20 years than fossil gas but lower impacts than coal. Regarding metrics for climate impacts, over shorter time scales, approximately 30 years or less, radiative forcing overestimates the climate impacts compared with impacts expressed by global surface temperature change, which is due to the inertia of the climate system. We also find that establishing willow on earlier crop land may reduce atmospheric CO2, provided new land is available. However, these results are inconclusive since we haven't considered the effects of producing the agricultural crops elsewhere. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Moldan F.,IVL Swedish Environmental Reserach Institute Ltd |
Wright R.F.,Norwegian Institute for Water Research
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2011
The role of nitrogen (N) in acidification of soil and water has become relatively more important as the deposition of sulphur has decreased. Starting in 1991, we have conducted a whole-catchment experiment with N addition at Grdsjön, Sweden, to investigate the risk of N saturation. We have added 41 kg N ha-1 yr-1 as NH4NO3 to the ambient 9 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in fortnightly doses by means of sprinkling system. The fraction of input N lost to runoff has increased from 0% to 10%. Increased concentrations of NO3 in runoff partially offset the decreasing concentrations of SO4 and slowed ecosystem recovery from acid deposition. From 1990-2002, about 5% of the total N input went to runoff, 44% to biomass, and the remaining 51% to soil. The soil N pool increased by 5%. N deposition enhanced carbon (C) sequestration at a mean C/N ratio of 42-59 g g-1. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Amand L.,IVL Swedish Environmental Reserach Institute Ltd |
Amand L.,Uppsala University |
Carlsson B.,Uppsala University
Water Research | Year: 2012
An important tool to minimise energy consumption in activated sludge processes is to control the aeration system. Aeration is a costly process and the dissolved oxygen level will determine the efficiency of the operation as well as the treatment results. What aeration control should achieve is closely linked to how the effluent criteria are defined. This paper explores how the aeration process should be controlled to meet the effluent discharge limits in an energy efficient manner in countries where the effluent nitrogen criterion is defined as average values over long time frames, such as months or years. Simulations have been performed using a simplified Benchmark Simulation Model No. 1 to investigate the effect of different levels of suppressing the variations of the effluent ammonium concentration. Optimisation is performed where the manipulated variable for aeration (the oxygen transfer coefficient, K La) is minimised with the constraint that the average daily flow-proportional ammonium concentration in the effluent should reach a desired level. The optimisation results are compared with constant dissolved oxygen concentrations and supervisory ammonium control with different controller settings. The results demonstrate and explain how and why energy consumption can be optimised by tolerating the ammonium concentration to vary around a given average value. In these simulations, the optimal oxygen peak-to-peak amplitude range between 0.7 and 1.8mg/l depending on the influent variation and ammonium level in the effluent. These variations can be achieved with a slow ammonium feedback controller. The air flow requirements can be reduced by 1-4% compared to constant dissolved oxygen set-points. Optimal control of aeration requires up to 14% less energy than needed for fast feedback control of effluent ammonium. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Martin M.,IVL Swedish Environmental Reserach Institute Ltd
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2015
It is generally assumed that industrial symbiosis creates economic and environmental benefits for all firms involved, though few quantifications have been produced in the literature. The environmental performance of an industrial symbiosis network of biofuel producers on the island of Händelö, Sweden will be quantified using an approach from previous literature. This method allows the benefits provided by exchanges to be partitioned to firms taking part in the industrial symbiosis network, which may have implications for tax incentives, marketing, expansion and environmental awareness. The current industrial symbiosis network has been found to have benefits compared to reference scenarios produced. However, methodological choices, such as the choice of reference scenario and allocation methods may significantly influence the results of the environmental performance. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Buhr K.,IVL Swedish Environmental Reserach Institute Ltd |
Buhr K.,Linkoping University |
Hansson A.,Linkoping University
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2011
The development and deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) are sensitive to public debates that socially frame the technology. This study examines the evolving CCS debates, focusing on the media's framing of firms. Corporations are central CCS actors, and we analyze them in light of the nation-state, which has been emphasized in previous research as the primary context of CCS politics. Empirically, we compare framings of Statoil and Vattenfall in the Norwegian and Swedish media, drawing on a qualitative dataset of news media articles published between 2005 and 2009. We conclude that firms make regular media statements either to foster legitimacy or to respond to criticism of CCS. We also conclude that framing is not necessarily linked to technological success or failure and that interpretations of the technology have different forms depending on whether the related activity occurs in domestic or foreign markets. Finally, we explain the media framings based on the domestic energy situation and politics. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.