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Porzio G.F.,Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies | Colla V.,Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies | Fornai B.,Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies | Vannucci M.,Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies | And 2 more authors.
Applied Energy | Year: 2016

The use of Zinc-coated steel (e.g. galvanized steel) in melting cycles based on Electric Arc Furnaces can increase the production of harmful dust and hazardous air emissions. This article describes a novel process to simultaneously preheat and remove the coating from the scrap surface before the melting phase. The zinc in coating is removed in the gas phase by chloride containing syngas combustion and collected in a dedicated recovery system. Two possible innovative process routes are described, which involve plastic waste pre-treatment, shredded plastic gasification/pyrolysis, steel scrap preheating and zinc recovery processes. The routes have been modeled in an integrated flowsheet, in order to allow a comprehensive simulation and optimization of the pretreatment processes. The process optimization results in possible energy savings of over 300 MJ/t of preheated scrap charged in the Electric Arc Furnace for steel production. Moreover, a comparison among different scenarios according to economic and environmental criteria has been carried out. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Ryding M.J.,Gothenburg University | Jonsson A.M.,IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. | Zatula A.S.,University of Oslo | Andersson P.U.,Gothenburg University | Uggerud E.,University of Oslo
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2012

Reactions between pyridine containing water cluster ions, H +(pyridine)1(H2O)n, H+ (pyridine)2(H2O)n and H+ (NH 3)1(pyridine)1(H2O)n (n up to 15) with NH3 have been studied experimentally using a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The product ions in the reaction between H+ (pyridine)m(H2O)n (m =1 to 2) and NH3 have been determined for the first time. It is found that the reaction mainly leads to cluster ions of the form H1 (NH3)1(pyridine)m(H2O) n-x, with x =1 or 2 depending on the initial size of the reacting cluster ion. For a given number of water molecules (from 5 to 15) in the cluster ion, rate coefficients are found to be slightly lower than those for protonated pure water clusters reacting with ammonia. The rate coefficients obtained from this study are used in a kinetic cluster ion model under tropospheric conditions. The disagreement between ambient ground level measurements and previous models are discussed in relation to the results from our model and future experimental directions are suggested. © Author(s) 2012.


Holmgren K.M.,Chalmers University of Technology | Holmgren K.M.,IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd | Andersson E.,Goteborg Energi AB | Berntsson T.,Chalmers University of Technology | Rydberg T.,IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd
Energy | Year: 2014

This study evaluates the potential for reducing life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of biomass gasification-based methanol production systems based on energy balances. Configurations which are process integrated with a chemical cluster have been compared to stand-alone units, i.e. units with no connection to any other industry but with the possibility to district heating connection. Two different uses of methanol are considered: the use as a vehicle fuel and the use for production of olefins via the methanol-to-olefins process. An added value of the integration can be the availability of excess hydrogen. For the studied case, the methanol production could be increased by 10% by using excess hydrogen from the cluster. The results show that the integrated systems have greater potential to reduce GHG emissions than the stand-alone systems. The sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the references for electricity production and district heating production technology have important impacts on the outcomes. Using excess heat for district heating was found to have positive or negative impacts on GHG emissions depending on what heat production technologies it replaces. The investigated olefins production systems resulted in GHG emissions reductions that were similar in magnitude to those of the investigated biofuel production systems. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Berglund A.M.M.,Umeå University | Ingvarsson P.K.,Umeå University | Danielsson H.,IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. | Nyholm N.E.I.,Umeå University
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2010

Mining activities affect the surrounding environment by increasing exposure to metals. In this study, metal accumulation and its effects on reproduction and health of pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings were monitored before and up to five years after a lead mine and enrichment plant closed down. The lead concentration in moss, nestling blood, liver and feces all indicated decreased lead exposure by at least 31% after closure, although only blood lead decreased significantly. Although the birds responded fairly well to the changed atmospheric deposition (based on moss samples), concentrations were still higher compared with birds in a reference area, and breeding was affected at the mine (smaller clutches and higher mortality). Surviving nestlings suffered from lower hemoglobin levels, mean cell hemoglobin concentrations and inhibited δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Lead poisoning contributed to poor health and adverse reproductive effects, but other factors (e.g. increased parasitic load) probably also affected the birds. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cousins A.P.,IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd | Holmgren T.,Umeå University | Remberger M.,National Defence Center
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Estimated emissions of decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE 209) and the two phthalate esters diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP) to indoor air in the Stockholm conurbation, Sweden were used to assess the contribution of chemical outflows from the indoor environment to urban outdoor air pollution for these substances, by applying the recently developed Stockholm MUltimedia URban fate (SMURF) model. Emission rates of DINP from PVC materials were measured and published emission rates of DEHP were adapted to Swedish conditions. These were used as input to the model, as well as recently reported estimates of BDE 209 emissions to indoor air in Stockholm. Model predicted concentrations were compared to empirical monitoring data obtained from the literature and from additional measurements of phthalates in ventilation outlets and urban air performed in the current study. The predicted concentrations of the phthalates DINP and DEHP in indoor air and dust were within a factor of 1.5-10 of the measured concentrations. For BDE 209, predicted indoor concentrations were within the measured ranges, but measured concentrations showed a much larger variability. An adjusted emission scenario to better fit observed concentrations indoors was employed for DEHP and final outcomes resulted in estimated indoor emissions of 250 (50-1250), 2.9 (0.58-15), and 0.068 (0.014-0.34) kg year-1 for DEHP, DINP and BDE 209. These emissions could not explain the observed concentrations in urban air of the phthalates, suggesting an underestimation of background inflow or existence of additional sources in the outdoor environment. For BDE 209, the assessment indicates that the Stockholm indoor environment contributes about 25% to the air pollution load in inflowing background air, but additional monitoring data in urban air are needed to confirm this conclusion. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Malmborg J.,Tekniska verken i Linkoping AB publ. | Magner J.,IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2015

The fate of pharmaceutical residues in treatment of WWTP sludge was evaluated during mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) and six sanitization technologies (pasteurization, thermal hydrolysis, advanced oxidation processes using Fenton's reaction, ammonia treatment, thermophilic dry digestion, and thermophilic anaerobic digestion). Sludge spiked with a selection of 13 substances was used and in total 23 substances were detected. A correlation between substance lipophilicity and sludge partitioning was found after sample centrifugation, with e.g., SSRI drugs (90-99%) and estrogens (96-98%) mainly found in the solid phase. A correlation between lipophilicity and persistence of pharmaceutical residues during AD was also detected, indicating that hydrophobic substances are less available to degrading microorganisms. Overall, AD was found to be the most effective technology in reducing a wide spectrum of organic substances (in average ca 30% reduction). Similar effects were obtained for both AD treatments, suggesting that temperature (mesophilic or thermophilic) is less important for micropollutant reduction. Advanced oxidation processes using Fenton's reaction also affected several compounds, including substances showing general stability over the range of treatments such as carbamazepine, propranolol, and sertraline. Pasteurization, ammonia treatment, and thermophilic dry digestion exhibited relatively modest reductions. Interestingly, only thermal hydrolysis efficiently removed the ecotoxicologically potent estrogenic compounds from the sludge. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Lofgren S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Zetterberg T.,IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2011

During the last two decades, there is a common trend of increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in streams and lakes in Europe, Canada and the US. Different processes have been proposed to explain this trend and recently a unifying hypothesis was presented, concluding that declining sulphur deposition and recovery from acidification, is the single most important factor for the long-term DOC concentration trends in surface waters. If this recovery hypothesis is correct, the soil water DOC concentrations should increase as well. However, long-term soil water data from Sweden and Norway indicate that there are either decreasing or indifferent DOC concentrations, while positive DOC trends have been found in the Czech Republic. Based on the soil water data from two Swedish integrated monitoring sites and geochemical modelling, it has been shown that depending on changes in pH, ionic strength and soil Al pools, the DOC solubility might be positive, negative or indifferent. In this study, we test the acidification recovery hypothesis on long-term soil water data (25 and 50cm soil depth) from 68 forest covered sites in southern Sweden, showing clear signs of recovery from acidification. The main aim was to identify potential drivers for the DOC solubility in soil solution by comparing trends in DOC concentrations with observed changes in pH, ionic strength and concentrations of Aln+. As in earlier Swedish and Norwegian studies, the DOC concentrations in soil water decreased or showed no trend. The generally small increases in pH (median <0.3 pH units) during the investigation period seem to be counterbalanced by the reduced ionic strength and diminished Al concentrations, increasing the organic matter coagulation. Hence, opposite to the conclusion for surface waters, the solubility of organic matter seems to decrease in uphill soils, as a result of the acidification recovery. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Zetterberg T.,IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. | Zetterberg T.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Forest biofuel is a main provider of energy in Sweden and the market is expected to grow even further in the future. Removal of logging residues via harvest can lead to short-term acidification but the long-term effects are largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to 1) model the long-term effect of whole-tree harvest (WTH) on soil and stream water acidity and 2) perform sensitivity analyses by varying the amounts of logging residues, calcium (Ca2+) concentrations in tree biomass and site productivity in nine alternate scenarios. Data from three Swedish forested catchments and the Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments (MAGIC) were used to simulate changes in forest soil exchangeable Ca2+ pools and stream water acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) at Gammtratten, Kindla and Aneboda. Large depletions in soil Ca2+ supply and a reversal of the positive trend in stream ANC were predicted for all three sites after WTH. However, the magnitude of impact on stream ANC varied depending on site and the concentration of mobile strong acid anions. Contrary to common beliefs, the largest decrease in modelled ANC was observed at the well-buffered site Gammtratten. The effects at Kindla and Aneboda were much more limited and not large enough to offset the general recovery from acidification. Varying the tree biomass Ca2+ concentrations exerted the largest impact on modelled outcome. Site productivity was the second most important variable whereas changing biomass amounts left on site only marginally affected the results. The outcome from the sensitivity analyses pointed in the same direction of change as in the base scenario, except for Kindla where soil Ca2+ pools were predicted to be replenished under a given set of input data. The reliability of modelled outcome would increase by using site-specific Ca2+ concentrations in tree biomass and field determined identification of site productivity. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Ferm M.,IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd | Hellsten S.,IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2012

Daily average air concentrations of ammonia plus particulate ammonium, nitric acid plus particulate nitrate, sulphur dioxide and particulate sulphate have been measured at four EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) sites in Sweden since 1986. From 1993 sampling was made with a filter pack that separates the gaseous and particulate forms. The separation is not perfect, but fairly good when compared to a denuder. The same filter pack was used for monthly measurements at four high altitude sites in the Swedish mountain areas. The concentration of particulate ammonium decreases more rapidly than the ammonia emissions in Sweden and neighbouring countries while the ammonia concentration increases. Particulate ammonium is mainly long-range transported from the continent to the southern parts of Sweden, while gaseous ammonia comes from all directions. The particulate ammonium concentrations are charged balanced with particulate sulphate and nitrate concentrations and the long-range transport is therefore limited by the availability of these anions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Ferm M.,IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd | Sjoberg K.,IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2015

PM10 concentrations exceed the guidelines in some Swedish cities and the limit values will likely be further reduced in the future. In order to gain more knowledge of emission factors for road traffic and concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5, existing monitoring stations in two cities, Gothenburg and Umeå, with international E-road thoroughfares, were complemented with some PM2.5 measurements. Emission factors for PM10 and PM2.5 were estimated using NOX as a tracer. Monitoring data from kerbside and urban background sites in Gothenburg during 2006-2010 and in Umeå during 2006-2012 were used. NOX emissions were estimated from the traffic flow and emission factors calculated from the HBEFA3.1 model. PM2.5 constitutes the finer part of PM10. Emissions of the coarser part of PM10 (PM10-PM2.5) are suppressed when roads are wet and show a maximum during spring when the roads dry up and studded tyres are still used. Less than 1% of the road wear caused by studded tyres give rise to airborne PM2.5-10 particles. The NOX emission factors decrease with time in the used model, due to the renewal of the vehicle fleet. However, the NOX concentrations resulting from the roads show no clear trend. The air dispersion is an important factor controlling the PM concentration near the road. The dispersion has a minimum in winter and during midnight. The average street level concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in Gothenburg were 21 ± 20 and 8 ± 6 μg m-3 respectively, which is 36% and 22% higher than the urban background concentrations. Despite the four times lower traffic flow in Umeå compared to Gothenburg, the average particle concentrations were very similar; 21 ± 31 and 7 ± 5 μg m-3 for PM10 and PM2.5 respectively. These concentrations were, however, 108% and 55% higher than the urban background concentrations in Umeå. The emission factors for PM10 decreased with time, and the average factor was 0.06 g km-1 vehichle-1. The emission factors for PM2.5 are very uncertain due to the small increments in PM2.5 concentration at the thoroughfares, and were on average 0.02 g km-1 vehichle-1. © 2015 The Authors.

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