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Shekhar C.,iversity Of Agriculture And Technology
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2014

Varied samples (1,132) comprising poultry meat (212), poultry eggs (49), poultry droppings (60), autopsied poultry tissues (60), pork (156), pig faeces (189), cattle dung (105), buffalo dung (103), sheep faeces (11), goat faeces (31), deer faeces (2) and human stool (154) were screened for isolation of Salmonella spp. Total 50 Salmonella isolates were recovered from samples, viz. poultry meat (2), poultry eggs (1), poultry droppings (6), autopsied poultry tissues (16), pork (2), pig faeces (9), cattle dung (6), buffalo dung (3), sheep faeces (4) and human stool (1). The recovered Salmonella isolates belonged to 10 different serovars with most prevalent serovar S. Typhimurium (21) followed by S. Weltevreden (12), S. Ughelli (5), S. Essen (3), S. Elisabethville (2), S. Lagos (2), S. Drogana (2), S. Enteritidis (1), S. London (1) and un-typable Salmonella (1). Salmonella isolates showed extreme variation in resistance (0-100%) against anti-microbial agents. The maximum resistance was observed among Salmonella isolates against sulphamethizole and furazolidone (100% each) followed by kanamycin (50%), gentamicin (44%), nalidixic acid (14%), tobramycin (10%), amikacin, ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline (8% each), amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid (6%), norfloxacin (4%), ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime (2% each) and chloramphenicol (0%). A high level of sensitivity in Salmonella isolates was observed against chloramphenicol (100%) and tetracycline (92%). A high multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index in a range of 0.133-0.666 was observed in Salmonella serovars. Molecular characterization of Salmonella was performed by targeting amplification of invA gene primer fragment for confirmation of Salmonella spp. in which all isolates were found positive for this gene. Moreover, this gene encodes virulence factor in Salmonella spp. which was exhibited by all Salmonella isolates of the present study.

Wang W.-S.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang W.-S.,International Rice Research Institute | Pan Y.-J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhao X.-Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2011

An indica pyramiding line, DK151, and its recurrent parent, IR64, were evaluated under drought stress and non-stress conditions for three consecutive seasons. DK151 showed significantly improved tolerance to drought. The DNA methylation changes in DK151 and IR64 under drought stress and subsequent recovery were assessed using methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis. Our results indicate that drought-induced genome-wide DNA methylation changes accounted for ∼12.1% of the total site-specific methylation differences in the rice genome. This drought-induced DNA methylation pattern showed three interesting properties. The most important one was its genotypic specificity reflected by large differences in the detected DNA methylation/demethylation sites between DK151 and IR64, which result from introgressed genomic fragments in DK151. Second, most drought-induced methylation/demethylation sites were of two major types distinguished by their reversibility, including 70% of the sites at which drought-induced epigenetic changes were reversed to their original status after recovery, and 29% of sites at which the drought-induced DNA demethylation/methylation changes remain even after recovery. Third, the drought-induced DNA methylation alteration showed a significant level of developmental and tissue specificity. Together, these properties are expected to have contributed greatly to rice response and adaptation to drought stress. Thus, induced epigenetic changes in rice genome can be considered as a very important regulatory mechanism for rice plants to adapt to drought and possibly other environmental stresses. © 2010 The Author(s).

Shukla R.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences | Dwivedi D.K.,iversity Of Agriculture And Technology
Plant Archives | Year: 2012

The phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficients were estimated among the thirteen characters leaf rolling, seedling height, leaves per seedling, days to 50% flowering, plant height, panicle bearing tillers per plant, spikelets per panicle, grains per spikelet, spikelet fertility (%), test weight, biological yield, harvest index and grain yield under drought and twelve characters seedling height, leaves per seedling, days to 50% flowering, plant height, panicle bearing tillers per plant, spikelets per panicle, grains per spikelet, spikelet fertility (%), test weight, biological yield, harvest index and grain yield under control condition are analyzed, were as, path coefficient analysis were estimated at phenotypic and genotypic levels to resolve the direct and indirect effect of thirteen characters under drought condition and twelve characters under control condition on grain yield.

Yadav S.K.,Allahabad University | Gupta A.B.,iversity Of Agriculture And Technology
Plant Archives | Year: 2013

A field experiment was conducted during the Kharif season of two consecutive years (2000-2001, 2001-2002) to study the effect of different levels of Humaur and multiplex on growth and yield of tomato. The maximum plant height was recorded when treated with 100 ml of multiplex per hectare with out streptocycline while the maximum branching, numbers of fruits were recorded at the treatment of 200 ml/ha multiplex with out streptocycline. However, fruit diameter was highest in the treatment of 100 ml multiplex along with 300 gm streptocycline per hectare.

Singh A.K.,iversity Of Agriculture And Technology | Shankar K.,iversity Of Agriculture And Technology
Plant Archives | Year: 2011

The present investigation was carried out with three different plant growth regulators, namely GA 3, NAA and BA applied as foliar application 30 days after planting of tuberose Bulb. The vegetative characters like number of sprout per bulb could be manipulated with the application of NAA 300 ppm (14.13), besides this height of plant and number of leaves per clump could be enhanced with the application of GA 3 300 ppm (51.40cm and 54.73 cm respectively) in cv. Double as compared to control. Application 300 ppm GA 3 decreased the days taken to initiation of spike (83.20 days), opening of first florets (94.20 days) and increase the duration of flowering (18.93 days) compared to control.

Kumar S.,iversity Of Agriculture And Technology | Singh A.K.,iversity Of Agriculture And Technology | Singh A.,KVK Inc
Plant Archives | Year: 2011

A field trial was conducted to find out the effect of plant growth regulators and nutrients on shelf life and chemical constituent of guava fruit cv. L-49. The experiment was carried out at main experiment station Horticulture, N.D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Faizabad during the year 2005 and 2006. Sixteen years old trees of guava were sprayed on first before flowering (1 st week of April) second after fruit set (2 nd week of May) with thirteen treatment combination comprising of different levels of GA 3, NAA, KNO 3 and Borax in Randomized Block Design with three replications. Minimum physiological loss in weight, maximum storage stability, T. S. S., total sugars, ascorbic acid and minimum acid contents were recorded with foliar application of GA 3 50 ppm + Borax 0.25 per cent was founds most effective treatment in guava fruit during both the years. In general, all treatment increased all chemical attributes up to 2 days of storage period. There after decreased on prolongation of storage period in guava fruit.

Kumar A.,iversity Of Agriculture And Technology | Deen B.,iversity Of Agriculture And Technology
Annals of Biology | Year: 2016

The present investigation was carried out to investigate the studies on changes in physical attributes of wood apple (Limonia acidissima L.) fruits during growth and development during the year 2012-13. The experimental changes in physical attributes during growth and development of wood apple fruits were studied from fruiting to maturity and ripening time of fruits at 30 days intervals. The mature fruit of wood apple had 179.10 g weight and pulp colour changed from light brown to light yellow. There parameters can be used as maturity index for wood apple fruits. The average fruit weight, seed per cent and pulp per cent increased during entire period of study, while shell thickness increased up to maturity thereafter decreased till end of the experiment. From the present studies, it can be concluded that appropriate harvesting time 180 DAFS and pulp colour changed from light brown to light yellow, when fruits attained internal best quality used for shelf-life and processing.

Singh S.P.,iversity Of Agriculture And Technology | Singh S.K.,iversity Of Agriculture And Technology
Annals of Biology | Year: 2014

Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) is an important pulse crop in India. Among the various factors responsible for lowering down its yield, Cercospora leaf spot is one of the most important diseases of mungbean and plays major role in yield reduction. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of 15 botanicals at 7.5, 10.0 and 15.0% concentration in vitro and green house condition against C. canescens Ellis & Martin. The results showed that all plant extracts were more or less inhibitory to mycelial growth and the effectiveness of extracts increased with an increase in concentration and time. Minimum mycelial growth (20.33 mm) and maximum mycelial inhibition (62.82%) were recorded with garlic followed by datura (23.83 mm and 56.66%), neem (25.67 mm and 53.34%), madar (26.67 mm and 51.52%) and mehandi (26.83 mm and 51.21%), respectively, as compared to control (55.00 mm and 0.00%) at 15% concentration. The similar patterns were also observed at 7.5 and 10.0% concentration. The similar patterns were also observed in green house for disease management through botanicals.

Yadav S.P.,iversity Of Agriculture And Technology | Chand G.,iversity Of Agriculture And Technology | Chakrabarti D.K.,iversity Of Agriculture And Technology
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2012

Malformation of mango (Mangifera indica L.) induced by Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans is a plant disease of international importance. The paper reports the downstream defence responses at the initial stage in a susceptible host (cultivar Amrapali) after treatment with biotic (isolated from the pathogen cell wall) (BEL) and abiotic (salicylic acid, SA) elicitors, and inoculation of vegetative buds with the pathogen (IVB). The SA was further tested to induce resistance in field trials. The inoculation and application of elicitors increased β-1, 3 glucanase that causes lysis of fungal hyphae by many folds. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (active oxygen species) that induces hypersensitive cell death was reduced to the minimum level after treatment with BEL. The reduction of H2O2 in the inoculated vegetative buds was also substantial; however, comparatively less with SA treatment. Consequently, there was no hypersensitive cell death in the malformed mango. Salicylic acid that enhances H2O2 content by suppressing H2O2-degradation by catalase, increased marginally with the SA treatment and in the IVB, but reduced with the BEL. The reduction of SA in BEL-treated buds concomitantly reduced its H2O2 content. The activity of catalase, suppressor of resistance mechanism, was reduced in all the treatments, but the reduction was not enough to arrest H2O2-degradation. Magiferin (1, 3, 6, 7-tetrahdroxyxanthone C2-β-D glucoside), a defence metabolite of mango, increased substantially in all the treatments; maximum with the BEL. A pathogenesis-related (PR) protein of 20 KDa that resists symptom development appeared in all the treatments except the control. But light colour of the spots for the PR-protein indicated low protein accumulation. The maximum accumulation was with the IVB followed by SA and BEL treatments. The amount of total protein reduced considerably in all the treatments. The SA treatment on healthy plants failed to induce defence against malformation. Contrarily, the treatment on malformed seedlings restored normal growth within two months. Hence, SA acted better over the infected plants in presence of the pathogen. Thus, a signal transduction system involving SA and H2O2 remained nonfunctional and enough defence chemicals could not be synthesised. Defence genes that produce phenolic and β-1, 3 glucanase, however, became activated and saved the plants from death although could not prevent symptom manifestations. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Singh S.P.,iversity Of Agriculture And Technology | Singh S.K.,iversity Of Agriculture And Technology
Annals of Agri Bio Research | Year: 2014

Cercospora leaf spot disease of mungbean caused by Cercospora canescens Ellis & Martin is one of the most important diseases. It caused yield loss up to 47% in warm-wet season. A total of 113 genotypes of mungbean were evaluated during 2009-10 and 2010-2011 by using 1-9 scale. Among 113 genotypes, eight genotypes viz., ML-4, ML-5, HUM-4, HUM-9, LGG-450, HUM-1, SM-9-124 and SM-9-107 were found resistant and 36 genotypes Were moderately resistant to the disease. The rest of the genotypes were susceptible to cercospora leaf spot.

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