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Bhubaneshwar, India

Padhy M.K.,iversity | Saini R.P.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Energy | Year: 2011

The erosion of turbine components causes the decrease in turbine efficiency; increase in the maintenance cost and down time for turbine repair. All these factors contribute to the plant cost and cause the revenue losses. It is, therefore, essential to study the amount of efficiency loss owing to the erosion of turbine components due to the silt particles coming in water. The present study has been carried out to investigate the effect of silt erosion for different silt laden parameters and operating parameters such as silt concentration, size of silt particles, jet velocity and operating hours of the turbine on efficiency loss in Pelton turbine buckets. It has been found that turbine efficiency loss depends strongly on silt and operating parameters. A correlation has also been developed as a function of silt parameters and operating condition for percentage of efficiency loss. The developed correlation may be useful for turbine manufactures in order to predict the efficiency loss of a Pelton turbine at the manufacturing stage of a turbine under a given silt content water for a particular site. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hicken M.,University of Michigan | Gragg R.,iversity | Hu H.,University of Michigan
Health Affairs | Year: 2011

Blacks have persistently higher rates of high blood pressure, or hypertension, compared to whites, resulting in higher health costs and mortality rates. Recent research has shown that social and environmental factors-such as high levels of stress and exposure to lead-may explain racial disparities in hypertension. Based on these findings, we recommend a fundamental shift in approaches to health disparities to focus on these sorts of cumulative risks and health effects. Federal and state agencies and research institutions should develop strategic plans to learn more about these connections and apply the broader findings to policies to reduce health disparities. © 2011 Project HOPE-The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc. Source

Rana S.V.S.,iversity
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2014

An attempt has been made to review the endocrine/hormonal implications of a few environmentally significant metals, viz, lead, mercury, cadmium, copper, arsenic and nickel, in man and animals. Special emphasis has been given to the adrenals, thyroid, testis, ovary and pancreas. Toxic metals can cause structural and functional changes in the adrenal glands. Their effects on steroidogenesis have been reviewed. It has been reported that thyroid hormone kinetics are affected by a number of metallic compounds. Occupational exposure to a few of these metals can cause testicular injury and sex hormone disturbances. Protective effects of a few antioxidants on their reproductive toxicity have also been discussed. Information gathered on female reproductive toxicity of heavy metals shows that exposure to these metals can lead to disturbances in reproductive performance in exposed subjects. Certain metals can cause injury to the endocrine pancreas. Exposure to them can cause diabetes mellitus and disturb insulin homeostasis. The need to develop molecular markers of endocrine toxicity of heavy metals has been suggested. Overall information described in this review is expected to be helpful in planning future studies on endocrine toxicity of heavy metals. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media. Source

Rout G.C.,iversity
Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal | Year: 2010

We report here the microscopic theory of the Raman spectra of the colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) manganite systems. The system is described by a model Hamiltonian consisting of the double exchange interaction in addition to the charge ordering interaction in the e(g) band and spin-spin interaction among the t(2g) core electrons. Further the phonon coupling to the conduction electron density is incorporated in the model for phonons in the harmonic approximation. The spectral density function for the Raman spectra is calculated from the imaginary part of the phonon Green's function. The calculated spectra display the Raman active bare phonon peak along with the charge ordering peak. The magnetic field and temperature dependence of the charge ordering peak agrees with the 480 cm(-1) JT mode observed in the experiments. The evolution of this mode is investigated in the report. Source

Pundir C.S.,iversity | Chawla S.,iversity
Analytical Biochemistry | Year: 2014

The glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level in blood is a measure of long-term glycemic status in patients with diabetes mellitus. Current clinical methods for determination of the HbA1c level include electrophoresis/electroendosmosis, ion exchange chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, boronate affinity chromatography, immunoassay, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy in addition to fluorometry and colorimetry. These methods have certain drawbacks such as being complex, time-consuming, and requiring expensive apparatus and trained persons to operate. These drawbacks were overcome by biosensing methods. We review these biosensors, which are based on (i) measurement of electrons, that is, current generated from splitting of hydrogen peroxide released during oxidation of fructosyl valine by immobilized fructosyl amino acid oxidase, which is directly proportional to HbA1c concentration, and (ii) direct measurement of HbA1c by some specific reaction. HbA1c biosensors work optimally within 4 to 1800 s, between pH 7.0 and 9.0 and between 25 and 45°C, and in the range of 1 to 10,000 μM, with a detection limit between 20 and 500 μM and sensitivity between 4.6 nA and 21.5 μA mM-1 cm-2 and stable over a period of 5 to 90 days. We suggest the ways to modify existing HbA1c biosensors, leading to simple, reliable, and economical sensors ideally suited for point-of-care treatment. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc. Source

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