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Fernandez-Fueyo E.,Technical University of Delft | Van Wingerden M.,Technical University of Delft | Renirie R.,IVAM UvA BV | Wever R.,University of Amsterdam | And 3 more authors.
ChemCatChem | Year: 2015

The vanadium-dependent chloroperoxidase from Curvularia inaequalis is an efficient biocatalyst for the in situ generation of hypohalous acids and subsequent electrophilic oxidation/halogenation reactions. Especially, its superb activity and stability under operational conditions make it an attractive catalyst for organic synthesis. Herein, the efficient bromination of thymol was investigated, and turnover numbers of the enzyme were found to exceed 2 000 000. The major novelty of the work is that vanadium chloroperoxidase is more useful as a brominating enzyme than vanadium bromoperoxidase in terms of operational stability, besides being far more stable than heme-containing peroxidases. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Van Broekhuizen P.,IVAM UvA BV | Reijnders L.,University of Amsterdam
Annals of Occupational Hygiene | Year: 2012

This article summarizes the outcome of the discussions at the international workshop on nano reference values (NRVs), which was organized by the Dutch trade unions and employers' organizations and hosted by the Social Economic Council in The Hague in September 2011. It reflects the discussions of 80 international participants representing small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs), large companies, trade unions, governmental authorities, research institutions, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) from many European countries, USA, India, and Brazil. Issues that were discussed concerned the usefulness and acceptability of precaution- based NRVs as a substitute for health-based occupational exposure limits (OELs) and derived no-effect levels (DNELs) for manufactured nanoparticles (NPs). Topics concerned the metrics for measuring NPs, the combined exposure to manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) and process-generated NPs, the use of the precautionary principle, the lack of information about the presence of nanomaterials, and the appropriateness of soft regulation for exposure control. The workshop concluded that the NRV, as an 8-h time-weighted average, is a comprehensible and useful instrument for risk management of professional use of MNMs with a dispersible character. The question remains whether NRVs, as advised for risk management by the Dutch employers' organization and trade unions, should be under soft regulation or that a more binding regulation is preferable. © The Author 2012. Source


Van Broekhuizen P.,IVAM UvA BV | Dorbeck-Jung B.,University of Twente
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene | Year: 2013

In the European Union, the legal obligation for employers to provide a safe workplace for processing manufactured nanomaterials is a challenge when there is a lack of hazard information. The attitude of key stakeholders in industry, trade unions, branch and employers' organizations, and government policy advisors toward nano reference values (NRVs) has been investigated in a pilot study that was initiated by a coalition of Dutch employers' organizations and Dutch trade unions. NRVs are developed as provisional substitutes for health-based occupational exposure limits or derived no-effect levels and are based on a precautionary approach. NRVs have been introduced as a voluntary risk management instrument for airborne nanomaterials at the workplace. A measurement strategy to deal with simultaneously emitting processgenerated nanoparticles was developed, allowing employers to use the NRVs for risk assessment. The motivational posture of most companies involved in the pilot study appears to be pro-active regarding worker protection and acquiescent to NRVs. An important driver to use NRVs seems to be a temporary certainty employers experience with regard to their legal obligation to take preventive action. Many interviewees welcome the voluntary character of NRVs, though trade unions and a few companies advocate a more binding status. Copyright © 2013 JOEH, LLC. Source


Van Broekhuizen P.,IVAM UvA BV | Van Broekhuizen F.,IVAM UvA BV | Cornelissen R.,IVAM UvA BV | Reijnders L.,University of Amsterdam
Journal of Nanoparticle Research | Year: 2012

Nano reference values (NRVs) for occupational use of nanomaterials were tested as provisional substitute for Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs). NRVs can be used as provisional limit values until Health-Based OELs or derived no-effect levels (DNEL) become available. NRVs were defined for 8 h periods (time weighted average) and for short-term exposure periods (15 min-time weighted average). To assess the usefulness of these NRVs, airborne number concentrations of nanoparticles (NPs) in the workplace environment were measured during paint manufacturing, electroplating, light equipment manufacturing, non-reflective glass production, production of pigment concentrates and car refinishing. Activities monitored were handling of solid engineered NPs (ENP), abrasion, spraying and heating during occupational use of nanomaterials (containing ENPs) and machining nanosurfaces. The measured concentrations are often presumed to contain ENPs as well as process-generated NPs (PGNP). The PGNP are found to be a significant source for potential exposure and cannot be ignored in risk assessment. Levels of NPs identified in workplace air were up to several millions of nanoparticles/ cm 3. Conventional components in paint manufacturing like CaCO 3 and talc may contain a substantial amount of nanosized particulates giving rise to airborne nanoparticle concentrations. It is argued that risk assessments carried out for e.g. paint manufacturing processes using conventional non-nano components should take into account potential nanoparticle emissions as well. The concentrations measured were compared with particle-based NRVs and with massbased values that have also been proposed for workers protection. It is concluded that NRVs can be used for risk management for handling or processing of nanomaterials at workplaces provided that the scope of NRVs is not limited to ENPs only, but extended to the exposure to process-generated NPs as well. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012. Source


Van Broekhuizen P.,IVAM UvA BV | Van Broekhuizen F.,IVAM UvA BV | Cornelissen R.,IVAM UvA BV | Reijnders L.,University of Amsterdam
Journal of Nanoparticle Research | Year: 2011

In the European construction industry in 2009, the use of engineered nanoparticles appears to be confined to a limited number of products, predominantly coatings, cement and concrete. A survey among representatives of workers and employers from 14 EU countries suggests a high level of ignorance about the availability and use of nanomaterials for the construction industry and the safety aspects thereof. Barriers for a large-scale acceptance of products containing engineered nanoparticles (nanoproducts) are high costs, uncertainties about long-term technical material performance, as well as uncertainties about health risks of nanoproducts. Workplace measurements suggest a modest exposure of construction workers to nanoparticles (NPs) associated with the use of nanoproducts. The measured particles were within a size range of 20-300 nm, with the median diameter below 53 nm. Positive assignment of this exposure to the nanoproduct or to additional sources of ultrafine particles, like the electrical equipment used was not possible within the scope of this study and requires further research. Exposures were below the nano reference values proposed on the basis of a precautionary approach. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011. Source

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