IV. Interni Klinika 1

Prague, Czech Republic

IV. Interni Klinika 1

Prague, Czech Republic
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Zeman M.,IV. Interni Klinika 1 | Jirak R.,Psychiatricka Klinika 1. Lekarske | Raboch J.,Psychiatricka Klinika 1. Lekarske | Vecka M.,IV. Interni Klinika 1 | Zak A.,IV. Interni Klinika 1
Ceska a Slovenska Psychiatrie | Year: 2010

Tissue resistance to the insulin effects is taking part in the etiopathogenesis of diabetes mellitus type 2; moreover, it is linked with increased cardiovascular morbitidy and mortality. The principal pathogenetic mechanisms of insulin resistance playing a role in these diseases include oxidative stress and subclinical inflammatory processes. The findings of the last years revealed the role of peripheral as well as brain insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of some neurological and psychiatrical diseases, particularly the sporadic form of Alzheimer disease, depressive disorders and schizophrenia, all of them being characterized with increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 and/or cardivascular disease. Insulin resistance and associated metabolic disturbances interfere with the development of specific brain areas (e. g. hippocampus), are linked with the formation of amyloid plaques, pathologic intraneuronal tangles, and also with the deterioration of the structures responsible for memory and learning processes. The paper reviews the mechanisms, by which insulin resistance influences the pathogenesis of selected neuropsychiatric disorders.


Urbanek M.,IV. Interni Klinika 1 | Lukas K.,IV. Interni Klinika 1
Interni Medicina pro Praxi | Year: 2011

A cough is a reflex action to clear the airways of potential causative factors of obstruction or to respond to (heat, chemical or thermal) irritation. When persistent, cough becomes a symptom accompanying a number of diseases and makes the patient seek medical attention. In terms of prevalence, cough is one of the most common symptoms the patients present with. Both acute (lasting up to three weeks) and chronic (lasting more than three weeks; according to some, duration of up to eight weeks can be accepted) forms are encountered. The diagnosis of its aetiology often requires multidisciplinary cooperation. Its underestimation may have fatal consequences for the patient because the disease may be serious.


Macasek J.,IV. interni klinika 1
Interni Medicina pro Praxi | Year: 2011

Pruritus is an unpleasant sensation. Pruritus is associated with dermatologic or systemic diseases. Pruritus is classified into categories on the basis of underlying disease, we recognise primary or secondary, and localization of it, we recognize localized or generalized form. Secondary form of pruritus is common symptom of dermatologic diseases. But secondary form of pruritus is also very often symptom of systemic diseases as chronic renal insuficiency, cholestasis, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, polycythemia vera, Hodgkińs lymphoma etc. For diagnosing the cause of itching are important physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, imaging techniques etc. It is very important to distinguish between primary skin lesions and secondary skin leasions caused by itching. Treatment includes bathing in colder water, application of lotions on the skin, administration of systemic drugs or use of acupuncture.

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