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Mont-de-Marsan, France

Baeza E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Marie-Etancelin C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Davail S.,IUT des Pays de lAdour | Diot C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Diot C.,Agrocampus Ouest
Productions Animales | Year: 2013

The fatty liver of overfed waterfowl results from a hepatic steatosis induced by specific nutritional conditions. This steatosis is hypertrophic, reversible and characterised by an accumulation of triglycerides in the hepatocytes. This ability is favoured by different physiological and metabolic peculiarities of birds such as the main site of lipid synthesis which is the liver and the use of a specific feed, maize rich in starch and distributed in large quantities to waterfowl. This important amount of maize stimulates two transcription factors regulated respectively by insulin, SREBP-1c and by glucose, ChREBP which will act then on glycolysis and lipogenesis. However, the ability to produce fatty liver depends on species and even the genotype of waterfowl. It results essentially from an increased capacity of hepatic lipogenesis, an insufficient hepatic capacity to export neo synthesised triglycerides and a limited capacity of peripheral tissues in the uptake of circulating lipids then favouring their return towards the liver and therefore increasing the development of steatosis. The selection on the weight of fatty liver is effective. Three QTL controlling the weight of fatty liver of the mule duck were detected on chromosomes 2, 9 and 21 of the common female duck. In addition with adapted rearing and feeding conditions, geese are able to initiate a spontaneous hepatic steatosis. This constitutes a perspective to developing fatty liver production without using overfeeding.

Chupin L.,IUT des Pays de lAdour | Maunu S.L.,University of Helsinki | Reynaud S.,University of Pau and Pays de lAdour | Pizzi A.,University of Lorraine | And 2 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2015

The effect of particle size on the extraction of tannins by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) was studied for the first time to our knowledge. Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) bark from the South West of France was sieved into five ranges of particle size before extraction was carried out in an ethanol-water solution. For each extraction, the extraction yield, the total polyphenolic content, the condensed tannins content, and the sugar content were quantified. The extracts were characterized by their reactivity to formaldehyde, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H NMR, and heteronuclear single correlation spectroscopy 2D NMR (HSQC 2D NMR). The MAE was also compared to a hot water based extraction. The effect of the particle size on the extraction efficiency was studied. The HSQC 2D NMR revealed that (epi) catechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechine, and epigallocatechine gallate were obtained. Higher amounts of condensed tannins, sugars, and simple flavonoids were extracted by MAE extraction. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Vasai F.,IUT des Pays de lAdour | Brugirard Ricaud K.,IUT des Pays de lAdour | Bernadet M.D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Cauquil L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 5 more authors.
FEMS Microbiology Ecology | Year: 2014

To investigate the effect of overfeeding on the ileal and cecal microbiota of two genotypes of ducks (Pekin and Muscovy), high-throughput 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing was used. The ducks were overfed for 12 days with 58% maize flour and 42% maize grain. Samples were collected before the overfeeding period (at 12 weeks), at 13 weeks, at 14 weeks, and 3 h after feeding. In parallel, ducks fed ad libitum were killed at the same ages. Whatever the digestive segment, the genotype, and the level of intake, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes are the dominant phyla in the bacterial community of ducks (at least 80%). Before overfeeding, ileal samples were dominated by Bacilli, Clostridia, and Bacteroidia classes (≥ 70%), and cecal samples, by Bacteroidia and Clostridia classes (around 90%) in both Pekin and Muscovy ducks. The richness and diversity decreased in the ileum and increased in the ceca after overfeeding. Overfeeding triggers major changes in the ileum, whereas the ceca are less affected. Overfeeding increased the relative abundance of Clostridiaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Streptococcaceae, and Enterococcaceae families in the ileum, whereas genotype affects particularly three families: Lachnospiraceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Desulfovibrionaceae in the ceca. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

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