News Article | February 15, 2017
Scientists have used genetic engineering techniques to develop a new system that could aid identification of potential drug targets and treatments for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, according to a PLOS Pathogens study. HPVs include more than 200 subtypes and cause illnesses ranging from genital warts to throat and cervical cancer. Every year, six million people are diagnosed with new HPV infections in the U.S. alone. Doctors administer a wide variety of treatments for illnesses caused by HPVs, with varying success, but no specific cure for HPV infection yet exists. To aid development of a cure, Mart Toots and colleagues of the Icosagen Cell Factory Ltd. and University of Tartu, Estonia have created a new method that enables identification of potentially effective drugs and drug targets. Unlike previously developed systems, their method takes into account the full HPV genome, as well as all three stages of the viral life cycle that occur during HPV infection. To develop the new system, the researchers genetically engineered HPV genomes by adding "reporter genes" that code for bioluminescent proteins and allow for easy monitoring of viral growth at any life cycle stage. This enables the use of a method called high-throughput screening to quickly test the effects of many different chemicals on viral growth and identify potential drug candidates or drug targets. The scientists demonstrated the new system by using it to screen more than 1000 chemical compounds in HPVs grown in cells derived from human tissue. They identified several compounds that blocked the growth of some HPV subtypes. Some of these compounds inhibit specific human cellular proteins that HPVs hijack to replicate inside the body, suggesting that these proteins could serve as targets in the development of new anti-HPV drugs. "We are confident that the developed HPV drug screening assay system will allow to identify several different novel drug targets and small molecule drugs," the authors further explain. "These could be used effectively for elimination of cutaneous and mucosal low risk and high risk Human Papillomavirus infections, therefore addressing serious unmet medical need in society, like benign and malignant HPV positive epithelial tumours." In your coverage please use this URL to provide access to the freely available article in PLOS Pathogens: http://journals. Citation: Toots M, Ustav M Jr, Männik A, Mumm K, Tämm K, Tamm T, et al. (2017) Identification of several high-risk HPV inhibitors and drug targets with a novel high-throughput screening assay. PLoS Pathog 13(2): e1006168. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1006168 Funding: This work was supported by project EU42266 from the Enterprise Estonia (EAS) as well as by the IUT 20-27 from Estonian Research Council, research grants 9385 and 9467 from the Estonian Science Foundation and Center of Excellence in Chemical Biology (3.2.0101.08-0017). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
News Article | February 16, 2017
Teledyne LeCroy, Inc. the worldwide leader in Bluetooth® protocol analysis and testing services is pleased to announce development of a Bluetooth Conformance Tester for verifying conformance of Bluetooth low energy link layer and HCI implementations. The Teledyne Bluetooth Conformance Tester dramatically simplifies the testing and reporting of Bluetooth low energy implementations attempting to conform to the Bluetooth 4.1, 4.2, and 5 specifications published by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (Bluetooth SIG). The Teledyne Bluetooth Conformance Tester is used in conjunction with the Sodera Wideband Bluetooth Protocol Analyzer to test an implementation under test’s (IUT) conformance with the Bluetooth low energy specification. IUTs are tested using conformance test cases published by the Bluetooth SIG. For simplicity, test plans created using the Bluetooth SIG test plan generator can be directly imported into the Teledyne Bluetooth Conformance Tester. Conveniently, the Frontline protocol analysis software runs at the same time as the conformance tester and provides comprehensive packet analysis. In addition to errors, warnings and events, by adding the Bluetooth Protocol Expert System software module, specific references to the Bluetooth specification and even solutions are made available while running the Bluetooth Conformance Tester. “The Teledyne Bluetooth Conformance Tester significantly reduces the conformance testing lifecycle,” explains David Bean, General Manager Teledyne LeCroy. “Not only does it streamline the conformance testing process, it can provide detailed solutions pointing to how to fix the issues that will inevitably be discovered when used with the Teledyne Bluetooth Protocol Expert System software module.” About Teledyne LeCroy Teledyne LeCroy is a leading manufacturer of advanced oscilloscopes, protocol analyzers, and other test instruments that verify performance, validate compliance, and debug complex electronic systems quickly and thoroughly. Since its founding in 1964, the Company has focused on incorporating powerful tools into innovative products that enhance "Time-to-Insight." Faster time to insight enables users to rapidly find and fix defects in complex electronic systems, dramatically improving time-to-market for a wide variety of applications and end markets. Teledyne LeCroy is based in Chestnut Ridge, N.Y. For more information, visit Teledyne LeCroy's website at teledynelecroy.com.
Aghajani A.,Isfahan University of Technology |
Atapour M.,Isfahan University of Technology |
Materials Performance | Year: 2016
Weather buoys are used for measuring meteorological data at sea and sending that data to coastal stations via a wireless network. Located under the buoy is a heavy ferrous metal counterweight box for balance and stability. This buoy counterweight is protected against corrosion by zinc sacrificial anodes. After about six months of operation, some of the anodes are sacrificed, while others are not, apparently because they experienced passivation. Test results show that the nonsacrificed anodes contain iron impurities and intermetallic phases in their microstructures. Thus, a simple anode acceptance test is the observation of impurities and intermetallic phases in the zinc anodes.
Shekaramiz M.,IUT |
Proceedings - 2011 8th International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery, FSKD 2011 | Year: 2011
This paper proposes a new systematic approach to analyze the stability of continuous T-S fuzzy models in case of having 22 and symmetric state matrices. A sufficient stability criterion in terms of Lyapunov function candidate is introduced to investigate the global asymptotic stability of T-S models. This criterion is obtained from estimating the spectrum of Hermitian matrices and has the merit that selection of the common positive-definite matrix P is independent of the sub-diagonal entries of the state matrices. It means, for a set of fuzzy models having the same main diagonal state matrices in their subsystems, it suffices to apply the method once. Several examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. © 2011 IEEE.
Gong X.J.,CNRS Research Department of Automotive Engineering |
Hurez A.,IUT |
Verchery G.,CNRS Research Department of Automotive Engineering
Polymer Testing | Year: 2010
This work covers the problems encountered in correctly determining mode I interlaminar fracture toughness of composite materials. Pure mode I tests were performed on double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens composed by quasi-homogeneous and uncoupled multidirectional (MD) laminates using 16 or 26-ply: [α/-α2/α/-α/α2/- α]sym or anti-sym and [0/α/-α/02/- α/0/α/02/α/-α/0]sym, with α = 0°,15°,30°,45°,90°. A finite element analysis shows that the non-uniformity ratio β=(GImax-GIav.)/G Iav% depends not only on the parameter Dc = D 12 2/(D11D22), but also on the specimen geometrical ratios a/b and a/h. The condition of Dc<0.25 is not sufficient to assure a uniform GI width-wise distribution. If we want to study the crack growth between any ply angles, it is difficult to find lay-ups having β<10%. In fact, the crack initiation in MD DCB specimens usually occurred at the middle of the specimens, where GI attained a maximum. Hence, the critical energy release rate GIC has to be measured by the maximum instead of the mean of GI. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sheikholeslam F.,IUT |
Proceedings - 2011 8th International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery, FSKD 2011 | Year: 2011
This paper provides a conducive criterion to investigate the stability of unforced continuous-time T-S fuzzy models in case of having second-order state matrices. According to the Tanaka and Sugeno theorem, the stability of a Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model can be proved by finding a common symmetric positive-definite matrix P for all the subsystems satisfying set of Lyapunov inequalities. But in many cases, especially by increasing the number of fuzzy rules, seeking such a common matrix seems to be a daunting task. In this paper, a simple sufficient stability criterion in terms of Lyapunov function candidate is proposed to investigate the global asymptotic stability of continuous-time T-S fuzzy models. In this case, the region of existence for the common positive-definite matrix P is investigated. It will be shown that choosing any arbitrary point from the obtained common region leads to a matrix P which can fulfill the relevant set of Lyapunov inequalities. In other words, finding any common region for such a matrix concludes the asymptotic stability of the system. This approach has the merit of specifying the existence or non-existence of the common matrix P for a fuzzy system. Several examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. © 2011 IEEE.
Karamian E.,Isfahan University of Technology |
Monshi A.,Isfahan University of Technology |
Bataille A.,CNRS Materials and Transformations Unit of UMET |
Journal of the European Ceramic Society | Year: 2011
SiC whisker is excellent in characteristics such as specific strength and chemical stability, and is useful as a composite reinforcing material. In this paper, the effect of the formation of in situ nano SiC whiskers on strength and density of bauxite-carbon composites was studied. Samples were prepared composed of 65. wt.% bauxite, 15. wt.% SiC-containing material, 10. wt.% coke, 10. wt.% resole and different values of silicon additives. The pressed samples were cured at 200°C (2. h) and fired at 1100°C and 1400°C (2. h). XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX, FTIR and STA were used to characterize the samples. These characterizations indicated that SiC nano whiskers, 50-90. nm, are single crystalline β-SiC with mechanism of the formation VLS. So, firing temperature is an important factor. As, SiC nano whisker was formed at 1400°C and improved CCS values up to four times in sample containing 6. wt.% ferrosilicon. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Azam F.,Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology |
Islam M.S.,Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology |
International Journal of GEOMATE | Year: 2016
In this research, the prospect of tunneling by cut and cover and New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) for underground metro rail system in Dhaka city was evaluated. Both conventional analysis and 2D finite element analysis using an elasto-plastic constitutive model named as subloading tij considering plane strain drained condition were performed. A comparison was made between results obtained from conventional analysis and numerical analysis for braced cuts. The behavior of different types of soil layers are simulated. Effects of different loading conditions and presence of water table have been considered for both cut and cover and NATM excavation method. Comparing the results of different foundation types, it has been found that for shallow foundation the surface settlement at the position of the foundation is larger than that for pile foundation. From analyses, it was revealed that for greenfield like Tongi to Uttara along the MRT-4, cut and cover is more appropriate considering its simplicity in execution and NATM is preferable at flyover junction points in Cantonment and structurally obstructed places. © 2015, Int. J. of GEOMATE. All rights reserved.
Noor S.,IUT |
Mayeed M.S.,Kennesaw State University |
Ehsan M.M.,IUT |
ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) | Year: 2015
Convective heat transfer rate for turbulent flow using nanofluid through both plain and corrugated channel has been investigated numerically in the present study. Three different types of nanofluids namely Al2O3-water, TiO2-water and CuO-water of different volume fractions (1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%), are used as the working fluid flowing through the channel. The corrugated channels have wall geometries of trapezoidal shape of different amplitude-wavelength ratios. Grid independence study was carried out for all the geometries. The obtained results in case of base fluid-water flowing through parallel plate channel have been validated with well-established correlations. The study has been conducted by finite volume method to solve the transport equation for the momentum, energy and turbulence quantities using single phase model of the nanofluids where the thermophysical properties of the nanofluids are calculated by using different correlations from the literature. In this study, the heat transfer enhancement using nanofluids compared to that using base fluid-water is presented for a range of Reynolds number-15000 to 40000. The pumping power required for the flow through the channels increases with the increase in the viscosity of the fluid which justifies the increase in pumping power requirement in case of nanofluids compared to that with water. While using corrugation at the wall of the channels, in addition to the enhancement in the convective heat transfer rate, there is an increase in the pumping power requirement for the same Reynolds number. However, for a given requirement of heat transfer rate, the required pumping power can be reduced by using nanofluids. This study includes the trend and limit of volume fraction of nanofluid during this pumping power reduction phenomenon. The results show that with the increase in the volume fraction of the nanofluids, the convective heat transfer rate increases which is same for all the geometries of the fluid domain. Addition of nanofluid reduces the pumping power requirement for a constant heat transfer rate. The volume fraction of the nanofluids with which the maximum reduction of pumping power takes place at the optimum working condition is also found in the present study. This study draws a comparison among three different nanofluids in terms of the enhancement in the convective heat transfer rate and corresponding pumping power requirement for the flow through the trapezoidal shaped corrugated channel of various amplitude-wavelength ratios in order to find out the best nanofluids for its optimum results within a specified range of working conditions. Keyword: nanofluid, corrugated channel, trapezoidal shape, turbulent flow, heat transfer, pumping power. © Copyright 2015 by ASME.
News Article | October 26, 2016
It has taken nearly four years, but mathematicians are finally starting to comprehend a mammoth proof that could revolutionise our understanding of the deep nature of numbers. The 500-page proof was published online by Shinichi Mochizuki of Kyoto University, Japan in 2012 and offers a solution to a longstanding problem known as the ABC conjecture, which explores the fundamental relationships between numbers, addition and multiplication beginning with the simple equation a + b = c. Mathematicians were excited by the proof but struggled to get to grips with Mochizuki’s “Inter-universal Teichmüller Theory” (IUT), an entirely new realm of mathematics he had developed over decades in order to solve the problem. A meeting held last year at the University of Oxford, UK with the aim of studying IUT ended in failure, in part because Mochizuki doesn’t want to streamline his work to make it easier to comprehend, and because of a culture clash between Japanese and western ways of studying mathematics. Now a second meeting, held last month at his home ground in Kyoto, has proved more successful. “It definitely went better than expected,” says Ivan Fesenko of the University of Nottingham, UK, who helped organise the meeting. The breakthrough seems to have come from Mochizuki explaining his theory in person. He refuses to travel abroad, only speaking via Skype at the Oxford meeting, which had made it harder for mathematicians outside Japan to get to grips with his work. “It was the key part of the meeting,” says Fesenko. “He was climbing the summit of his theory, and pulling other participants with him, holding their hands.” At least 10 people now understand the theory in detail, says Fesenko, and the IUT papers have almost passed peer review so should be officially published in a journal in the next year or so. That will likely change the attitude of people who have previously been hostile towards Mochizuki’s work, says Fesenko. “Mathematicians are very conservative people, and they follow the traditions. When papers are published, that’s it.” “There are definitely people who understand various crucial parts of the IUT,” says Jeffrey Lagarias of the University of Michigan, who attended the Kyoto meeting, but was not able to absorb the entire theory in one go. “More people outside Japan have incentive to work to understand IUT as it is presented, all 500 pages of it, making use of new materials at the various conferences.” But many are still not willing devote the time Mochizuki demands to understand his work. “The experts are still on the fence,” says Lagarias. “They are waiting for someone else to read the proof and asking why it cannot be made easier to understand.” It is likely that the IUT papers will be published in a Japanese journal, says Fesenko, as Mochizuki’s previous work has been. That may affect its reception by the wider community. “Certainly which journal they are published in will have something to do with how the math community reacts,” says Lagarias. The glimmer of understanding that has started to emerge is well worth the effort, says Fesenko. “I expect that at least 100 of the most important open problems in number theory will be solved using Mochizuki’s theory and further development.” But it will likely be many decades before the full impact of Mochizuki’s work on number theory can be felt. “The magnitude of the number of new structures and ideas in IUT will take years for the math community to absorb,” says Lagarias.