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Aldea M.,Ion Chiricuta Oncology Institute | Tomuleasa C.,Ion Chiricuta Oncology Institute | Petrushev B.,Ion Chiricuta Oncology Institute | Susman S.,Ion Chiricuta Oncology Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of B.U.ON. | Year: 2011

One of the main topics of the annual meeting of the American Society for Clinical Oncology in 2011 were the results presented on breast cancer chemotherapy and concomitant administration of the oral antidiabetic metformin. The overall agreement was that current evidence is just enough to dramatically change the clinical practice of oncology, and in our case, brain cancer treatment, and that further research is needed to address the relationship between diabetes, metabolism, insulin analogues and neoplasia. Still, it is very interesting to explore the potentially beneficial effects of metformin in glioma chemo/immunotherapy and wait for results in the clinic. In the current paper we present the cell and molecular aspects of the metabolic syndrome, metformin administration and cancer chemotherapy, with a special emphasis in neuro-oncology, since brain tumors are usually devastating diseases with an extremely high mortality within two years of diagnosis even when surgical, radiotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic interventions are applied. © 2011 Zerbinis Medical Publications. Source


Wittmann I.,University of Pecs | Stirban A.,Sana Klinikum Remscheid | Tesfaye S.,University of Sheffield | Gurieva I.,Moscow Medical Academy | And 10 more authors.
Diabetes, Stoffwechsel und Herz | Year: 2015

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has seen increasing prevalence, with current levels at around ten percent in adults aged twenty and over in industrialized western countries. CKD frequently affects both the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS); uraemia, advanced glycation end-product (AGE) accumulation and oxidative stress, hyperkalemia, insulin resistance, adipocytokines, and erythropoietin deficiency and resistance have been identified as potential triggering factors. Typical neurological sequelae include uraemic encephalopathy, dialysis disequilibrium syndrome, and uraemic polyneuropathy. Impaired cerebral cognitive function has been demonstrated even in clinically asymptomatic stages in uraemic patients. In general, initiation of renal replacement treatment is indicated as the most promising therapeutic approach, possibly with symptomatic treatment of neuropathic pain with first-line drugs such as gabapentin, pregabalin, tricyclic antidepressants, and duloxetine. Additional treatment with benfotiamine may be considered as a pathogenesis-oriented measure in addressing the important role of inflammation and oxidative stress in the further renal function deterioration and nervous damage. Source


News Article
Site: http://www.materialstoday.com/news/

Graphene oxide could be used to make super-strong dental fillings that don't corrode, according to a new study published in Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. Fillings are typically made of a mixture of metals such as copper, mercury, silver and tin or composites of powdered glass and ceramic, but metal fillings can corrode and composite fillings are not very strong. Graphene on the other hand is 200 times stronger than steel and doesn't corrode, making it a prime new candidate for dental fillings. In this new study, researchers from Romania and the West Indies investigated whether different forms of graphene are toxic to teeth. "The idea of the project was to add graphene into dental materials, in order to increase their resistance to corrosion as well as to improve their mechanical properties," explained Stela Pruneanu from the National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies in Romania and one of the authors of the study. "There is contradictory information regarding the cytotoxicity of graphene, so we first wanted to determine how toxic it is for teeth." Graphene comes in different forms, including graphene oxide, nitrogen-doped graphene and thermally-reduced graphene oxide. The researchers tested how toxic these different types of graphene are in vitro for stem cells found in teeth. Thermally reduced graphene oxide was highly toxic, making it inappropriate as a dental filling material. Nitrogen-doped graphene caused membrane damage at high doses (20–40mg/mL), but was shown to have antioxidant properties, so it could be useful if covered in a protective layer. Graphene oxide was least toxic to cells, making it an ideal candidate. "The results were very interesting and proved that graphene is appropriate for use in dental materials," said Gabriela Adriana Filip, associate professor at Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, and another author of the study. "We believe that this research will bring new knowledge about the cytotoxic properties of graphene-based materials and their potential applications in dental materials." The next step for this research is for the team to make dental materials with graphene oxide and test how compatible they are with teeth, and how toxic they are to cells. The results from this study are due to be published soon. This story is adapted from material from Elsevier, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. Link to original source.


Barkai L.,University of Miskolc | Gurieva I.,Moscow Medical Academy | Stirban A.,Profil Institute for Metabolic Research | Tesfaye S.,University of Sheffild | And 6 more authors.
Diabetes, Stoffwechsel und Herz | Year: 2012

The increasing incidence of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents emphasizes the need to focus on potential diabetic complications as well. These complications may also occur subclinically and increase at the onset of puberty. In type 1 diabetes, the absence of microvascular complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy is associated with a life expectancy comparable with that of the general population. Therefore, successful screening and prevention of microvascular complications play a key role in managing younger diabetic patients. The frequency of screening for nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy has been summarized in guidelines, and also depends on age, diabetes duration, and individual risk factors such as family predisposition, puberty, and elevated blood pressure. Optimized glycaemic control plays a key role in efficiently reducing the risk and progression of all microvascular complications. Current consensus recommendations for symptomatic pharmacological treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy include anticonvulsants; studies have also shown that the thiamine prodrug benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine-O-monophosphate) may prevent the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and may therefore improve early nerve dysfunction in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. The aim of this paper was to review the epidemiology, screening and prevention of microvascular complications from type 1 diabetes in younger patients. Source


News Article
Site: http://phys.org/nanotech-news/

Research suggests we chew around 800 times in an average meal; that's almost a million times a year. We put our teeth under huge strain, and often require fillings to repair them. Fillings are typically made of a mixture of metals, such as copper, mercury, silver and tin, or composites of powdered glass and ceramic. Typical metal fillings can corrode and composite fillings are not very strong; Graphene on the other hand is 200 times stronger than steel and doesn't corrode, making it a prime new candidate for dental fillings. In the study, researchers from Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, the National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, and the University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine in Romania, and Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine Basseterre in the West Indies investigated whether different forms of graphene are toxic to teeth. "The idea of the project was to add graphene into dental materials, in order to increase their resistance to corrosion as well as to improve their mechanical properties," explained Dr. Stela Pruneanu, one of the authors of the study from the National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies in Romania. "There is contradictory information regarding the cytotoxicity of graphene, so we first wanted to determine how toxic it is for teeth." Graphene comes in different forms, including graphene oxide, nitrogen-doped graphene and thermally reduced graphene oxide. The researchers tested how toxic these different types of graphene are in vitro for stem cells found in teeth. Thermally reduced graphene oxide was highly toxic, making it inappropriate as a dental filling material. Nitrogen-doped graphene caused membrane damage at high doses (20 and 40 micrograms per milliliter). However, it was shown to have antioxidant properties, so it could be useful if covered in a protective layer. Graphene oxide was least toxic to cells, making it an ideal candidate. "The results were very interesting and proved that graphene is appropriate for use in dental materials," said Dr. Gabriela Adriana Filip, one of the authors of the study and Associate Professor at Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca in Romania. "We believe that this research will bring new knowledge about the cytotoxic properties of graphene-based materials and their potential applications in dental materials." The next step for this research is for the team to make dental materials with graphene oxide and test how compatible they are with teeth, and how toxic they are to cells. The results are due to be published soon. Explore further: Graphene: A new tool for fighting cavities and gum disease? More information: Diana Olteanu et al. Cytotoxicity assessment of graphene-based nanomaterials on human dental follicle stem cells, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces (2015). DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2015.10.023

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