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Gaza, Palestinian Territory

Enshassi A.,IUG | Arain F.,Southern Alberta Institute of Technology | Al-Raee S.,Ministry of Transport
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management | Year: 2010

The maximum project performance would be achieved if the work invariably flows smoothly within time limits and anticipated budget. Variation orders result in time delay, cost overrun, quality defects, and other negative impacts. This is common in construction projects in Gaza Strip. The main objective of this study was to analyze the causes of variation orders in construction projects in Gaza Strip. The causes of variation orders in construction process in Gaza Strip were investigated through questionnaire survey of 36 classified construction companies, 25 consultants and 15 owners. 64 causes of variation orders were identified from literature review. The study results identified the top ten most important factors that include lack of materials and equipment spare parts due to closure, change in design by consultant, lack of consultant's knowledge of available materials, errors and omission in design, conflicts between contract documents, owner's financial problems, lack of coordination among project parties, using inadequate specification for local markets by international consultant, internal politics, and change is specification by owners. In general, the study shows an agreement among owners, consultants and contractors regarding the ranking of the 64 factors causing variation orders. The results also reveal that factors related to consultant are the most important causes of variation orders followed by the factors related to owner. An understanding of the causes of variation orders would be helpful for building professionals in assessing variation orders. Furthermore, the study would also assist professionals in taking proactive measures for reducing variation orders in construction projects. The findings from this study would also be valuable for all construction professionals in general. Source


El-Khozondar H.J.,IUG | El-Khozondar R.J.,University of Palestine | Zouhdi S.,University Paris - Sud
Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing | Year: 2012

The surface wave propagation at the interface between tunable metamaterials (MTMs) and nonlinear media is investigated. Tunable MTMs have a refractive index which can be tuned to negative-zero-positive values. The nonlinear media are assumed to have a Kerr-like refractive index. The dispersion equation is analytically derived and solved numerically. Results display the different behaviors of the propagating waves as the refractive index is tuned. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012. Source


Enshassi A.,IUG | Al. Swaity E.,University of Palestine
Journal of Construction in Developing Countries | Year: 2014

The aim of this paper is to investigate the key stressors that lead to stress among professionals on construction projects. A total of 320 questionnaires were randomly distributed to construction professionals in the Gaza Strip, and 183 were returned, yielding a 51% response rate. Exploratory factor analysis was employed to explore the interrelationships among stressor attributes in four stressor groups (task, personal, physical, and organisational). The results of this study indicated that personality and home-work conflicts are the most prevailing personal stressors linked to stress experienced by Gaza Strip construction professionals. This type of stress was induced because construction professionals did not give attention to their personal lives in addition to their jobs. Task stressors resulted from two types of work overload: Quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative overload came from working for long hours with too much work, whereas qualitative overload resulted from a wide range of responsibilities. Physical stressors were not recognised by Gaza Strip construction professionals as an important source of stress. With regard to organisational stressors, it was found that the policies, treatment, and rewards were inadequate. A politicised environment and lack of feedback from the supervisor were responsible for organisational structure stressors. This study will add value to the existing body of knowledge concerning Palestinian professionals' perspectives of stressors in the construction industry. Professionals can take key stressors into consideration to manage and minimise stress on construction projects. Therefore, training sessions on managing and coping with stress is recommended for construction professionals. © Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2015. Source


Enshassi A.,IUG | Abdul-Aziz A.-R.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Abushaban S.,Continuing Education Center
International Journal of Construction Management | Year: 2012

The construction industry has acquired a poor reputation in performance issues. Project success is dependent on, amongst other factors, the performance of the contractors. The aim of this paper is to identify and evaluate the main factors affecting the performance of construction projects in the Gaza strip. Sixty questionnaires were randomly distributed to contractors and 46 questionnaires were received (77% respondent rate). Sixty three factors were identified and categorized into ten groups. The level of importance of these factors were measured and ranked by their importance index from the contractors' perspectives. The most important factors were average delay arising from closures and materials shortage, availability of resources as planned through project duration, leadership skills of the project manager, escalation of material prices, availability of personnel with high experience and qualification and quality of equipments and raw materials in project. It is recommended that construction organizations have a clear mission and vision to formulate, implement and evaluate their performance. Source


Enshassi A.,IUG | Kochendoerfer B.,TU Berlin | Abed K.,PECDAR
Revista Ingenieria de Construccion | Year: 2013

Labor productivity in construction industry is gaining increasing attention as the industry faces multiple problems related to its workforce. Most of construction projects in the Gaza Strip were suffering from declining productivity and thus causing projects delay, and cost overruns. The aim of this paper is to determine contractors' perceptions towards the identified productivity improvement factors according to their relative importance in construction projects in the Gaza Strip. A comparison was made with other developed and developing countries. Eighty-three productivity improvement factors were considered in the questionnaire and categorized into eleven groups. A survey was conducted among construction firms in the Gaza Strip to rank these factors by their degree of influence on productivity of construction projects. Ninety questionnaires were randomly distributed among local contractors whereas seventy three valid questionnaires were collected from respondents. The findings of this study indicated that the most significant productivity improvement factors are: closures and economical difficulties, political situation, delivery on time, field management, and material availability. External circumstances group was found the most important group which affects productivity improvement in the Gaza Strip as the unstable political atmosphere affects badly the construction industry. A proactive relationship has to be established among all parties in order to allocate effective productivity improvement plans. It is hoped that, by identifying and ranking the major problems affecting construction productivity should help contractors to facilitate proper solutions as well as determining potentials for productivity improvement. The industry needs to collaborate more with universities and research institutions in order to plan an effective strategy through which construction industry could be enhanced. Training can increase productivity, morale, reduce the load on supervisors, improve safety, and increase organizational stability and flexibility. Source

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