Murādnagar, India
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Sharma M.,Pacific University at Udaipur | Astekar M.,nstitute of Dental science | Soi S.,ITS CDSR | Manjunatha B.S.,Taif University | Shetty D.C.,ITS CDSR
Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery | Year: 2015

Several tumors exhibit pH gradient reversal, with acidification of extracellular pH (pHe) and alkalinization of intracellular pH (pHi). The pH gradient reversal is evident even during the preliminary stages of tumorigenesis and is crucial for survival and propagation of tumors, irrespective of their pathology, genetics and origins. Moreover, this hallmark seems to be present ubiquitously in all malignant tumors. Based on these facts, we propose a new emerging hallmark of cancer “pH gradient reversal”. Normalizing pH gradient reversal through inhibition of various proton transporters such as Na+-H+ exchanger (NHE), Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase), H+/K+-ATPases and carbonic anhydrases (CAs) has demonstrated substantial therapeutic benefits. Indeed, inhibition of NHE1 is now being regarded as the latest concept in cancer treatment. A recent patent deals with the utilization of cis-Urocanic acid to acidify the pHi and induce apoptosis in tumors. Another patent reports therapeutic benefit by inhibiting Lactate Dehydrogenase - 5 (LDH-5) in various cancers. Several patents have been formulated by designing drugs activated through acidic pHe providing a cancer specific action. The purpose of this review is to analyze the available literature and help design selective therapies that could be a valuable adjunct to the conventional therapies or even replace them. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.

PubMed | I.T.S. CDSR
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of cancer research and therapeutics | Year: 2016

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is malignant neoplasm of the salivary glands. It accounts for most cases of minor salivary gland malignancies and a substantial proportion of parotid and submandibular gland malignancies. ACC is associated with a high mortality rate, and it often recurs after prolonged periods of time, and this occurs even when radical excision has been performed.The present study was aimed to determine the localization of dual cell population and to analyze the potency of using a system of dual markers (c-kit and epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]) in enhancing the characterization of ACC.Three micrometer thin sections of adenoid cystic carcinoma were obtained. One set of slides was stained by hematoxylin and eosin for reconfirmation of histological diagnosis while the other two sets were stained for c-kit and EGFR using immunohistochemical method. Statistical Analysis Used and Results: Show c-kit expression to be limited to the inner ductal epithelial cells and the EGFR expression mainly to the outer myoepithelial cells in the majority of tubular and cribriform patterns. In solid ACC, c-kit was uniformly positive while EGFR was consistently negative.C-kit and EGFR biomarkers can be used to enhance the characterization of ACC and to determine the localization of dual cell population which could suggest the dual origin of ACC and provides evidence for the new therapeutic strategy in ACC.

PubMed | Kothiwal Dental College and Research Center and ITS CDSR
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of oral biology and craniofacial research | Year: 2016

Mitosis is a process of cell division resulting in two genetically equivalent daughter cells. Excessive proliferation of cells due to mitosis is the hallmark in pre cancer and cancer.This study was conducted to count the number of mitotic figures in normal oral mucosa, oral epithelial dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma in both Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and Crystal Violet stained sections. Also the overall number of mitotic figures with both stains were compared along with the evaluation of staining efficacy of both the stains.The present study was conducted on 20 specimens each of the three categories. These were further divided into two groups for staining with H&E and with 1% Crystal Violet respectively. Images were captured and analyzed using image analysis software Dewinter Biowizard 4.1.Comparison of mitotic figure count in three categories in sections stained with both stains showed statistically significant difference (Number of mitotic figures progressively increase with the advancement of the pathology. Use of 1% Crystal Violet provides better appreciation of mitotic figures and can be employed as a selective stain in routine histopathology.

Sikka P.,LLRM Medical College | Kapoor S.,ITS CDSR | Bindra V.K.,IDST | Sharma M.,LLRM Medical College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine | Year: 2011

Statins are the most effective and widely used drugs for treating dyslipidemia, a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. These are one of the safest hypolipidemic drugs but many patients are bound to discontinue statins due to their side effects. Hepatotoxicity, myotoxicity and peripheral neuropathy are important out of them. Discontinuation of statins leads to dylipidemia and its grave consequences. Hence, there should be enough strategies for statin intolerant patients, so that they can be saved from these consequences. These side effects can be avoided by the awareness of certain factors viz. potential drug interactions and dose adjustment according to patho-physiology of the patient. Baseline investigations for liver function and muscle toxicity should be done before initiating statin therapy. Here, we are discussing various options for statin intolerant hyperlipidemic patients such as lower and intermittent dosing of statins, alternate hypolipidemic drugs, red yeast rice, supplementation with coenzyme Q10 and vitamin D. A number of hypolipidemic drugs are in trial phases and hold promise for statin intolerant patients.

Sikka P.,LLRM Medical College | Kaushik S.,P.A. College | Kumar G.,MLB Medical College | Kapoor S.,ITS CDSR | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences | Year: 2011

Objective : to study the probable site of antinociceptive action of SSRI (fluoxetine, escitalopram) and atypical antidepressants (mirtazapine, venlafaxine) and their interaction with morphine and naloxone. Materials and Methods : the study was conducted on albino mice (25-35 grams) of either sex. Different doses of morphine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg), fluoxetine (2, 5 and 10 mg/kg), venlafaxine (30, 40 and 50 mg/kg), mirtazapine (3, 5 and 7 mg/kg) and escitalopram (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) were administered subcutaneously to obtain their subanalgesic doses using tail flick analgesiometer. Tail flick latencies were obtained at 15, 30, 60 and 120 min. after drug administration. Naloxone (1 mg/kg) was administered 10 minutes prior to test drug for testing antagonism. Observations : fluoxetine (5 and 10 mg/kg), mirtazapine (5 and 7 mg/kg) and venlafaxine (40 and 50 mg/kg) were found to have antinociceptive activity but not at lower doses. Escitalopram failed to show any antinociceptive activity at any of the doses used. The antinociceptive effect of all the drugs was antagonized by naloxone (1 mg/kg). Further, subanalgesic doses of fluoxetine, mirtazapine and venlafaxine showed analgesic activity with suboptimal dose of morphine (0.5 mg/kg). Result and conclusion : fluoxetine, mirtazapine and venlafaxine have antinociceptive activity whereas escitalopram doesn′t; their site of action seems to be the same as that of opioid analgesics (′mue′ receptors). However, other pathways (cholinergic, histaminic, noradrenergic, GABAergic) may be involved in mediation of their analgesic activity, deserving further elucidation. Results apparently show that these drugs may be useful in the management of pain as monotherapy or in combination with other opioids.

Sikka P.,ITS CDSR | Bindra V.K.,IDST
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2010

Thromboembolic disorders are one of the disorders for which we are still on the look out for a safe and efficient drug. Despite the widespread use of antithrombotic drugs for the prevention and treatment of arterial and venous thrombosis, thromboembolic diseases continue to be a major cause of death and disability worldwide. This shows our inefficiency in searching efficacious and safe antithrombotic drugs. We have reached the basic mechanism of thrombus formation and by interrupting various steps of this mechanism, we can prevent as well as treat thromboembolic disorders. In continuation of Aspirin, now, we are using Clopidogrel, Ticlopidine and GpIIb/IIIa inhibitors (Abciximab, Tirofiban and Eptifibatide). Warfarin is an old antithrombotic drug which is still being used; but due to various side effects and drug interactions, we are bound to use newer drugs. Newer antiplatelet drugs include Prasugrel, Ticagrelor and Cangrelor, whereas newer thrombin inhibitors are Ximelgatran and Dabigatran. Apixaban is also a newer entry in this category as factor Xa inhibitor. Idrabiotaparinux is an indirect inhibitor of Xa as it accelerates the activity of antithrombin. Moreover, researches and trials for better and safe drugs are ongoing.

Minerva stomatologica | Year: 2011

Lymphangioma are uncommon hamartomatous congenital malformations of the lymphatic system that involve skin and subcutaneous tissue. They have marked predilection for head and neck region in 75% of cases. Around 50% of lesions are noticed at birth and 90% by 2 years of age. Oral lymphangioma may be present in tongue, palate, buccal mucosa, gingiva and lip. Lymphangioma are of 3 types-simplex, cavernous and cystic lymphangioma. Cavernous lymphangioma is usually seen in fairly dense tissue such as the tongue.We report two unusual cases of cavernous lymphangioma in 24-26 years age group with the site of involvement being floor of the mouth extending into the submandibular triangle in the first case, and the second manifesting as a bluish red swelling on the labial mucosa.

Dhingra V.,ITS CDSR | Taneja S.,ITS CDSR | Kumar M.,ITS CDSR | Kumari M.,ITS CDSR
Operative Dentistry | Year: 2014

This study evaluated the influence of fiber inserts, type of composites, and location of the gingival seat on microleakage in Class II resin composite restorations. Fifty noncarious human third molars were selected for the study. Standardized Class II box type cavities were prepared on the mesial and distal side of 45 teeth. The gingival margin was placed above the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) on the mesial side and below the CEJ on the distal side. The remaining five teeth received no cavity preparations. The prepared samples were divided randomly on the basis of type of composite and presence or absence of fiber inserts, into four experimental groups of 10 teeth each and two control groups of five teeth each. The groups were defined as follows: group I (n=10) - Z350 XT; group II (n=10) - Z350 XT with fibers; group III (n=10) - P90; group IV (n=10) - P90 with fibers; and group V (n=5) - positive controls, cavities were not restored; group VI (n=5) - negative controls, no cavities were prepared. The samples were stored in distilled water in incubator at 37°C for 24 hours and then subjected to 500 cycles of thermocycling (5°C and 558C) with a dwell time of 15 seconds. They were then placed in a 2% methylene blue dye solution for 24 hours at 37°C. Samples were sectioned longitudinally and evaluated for microleakage at the occlusal and gingival margin under a stereomicroscope at 20× magnification. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to compare the mean leakage scores. Restorations with gingival margins in enamel showed significantly less microleakage. Significant reduction in microleakage was observed in groups restored with P90 composite than those restored with Z350 XT. No improvement in microleakage was observed with the use of fiber inserts (p>0.05).

The aim of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (TBS) of bulk fill and low shrinkage composite for different depths of Class II cavities with the cervical margin in cementum.Standardized conservative box-shaped Class II cavities were prepared on sixty sound-impacted human third molars. The samples were randomly divided into two groups: Group I (Subgroups IA and IB showed lower TBS than subgroups IIA and IIB (SonicFill should be used in two increments for cavities with a depth of more than 5 mm.

PubMed | I.T.S. CDSR
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of applied & basic medical research | Year: 2016

The orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a rare developmental odontogenic cyst that has been considered as a variant of the keratocystic odontogenic tumor until Wright (1981) defined it as a different entity. Recognition of OOC as a unique entity has long been due, yet its inexplicable clinical, radiographic presentation resembling dentigerous cyst due to its association to an impacted tooth, and its histological features makes it rather perplexing. This is the report of a case of OOC in relation to an impacted maxillary canine and its immunohistochemical analysis with Ki-67.

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