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Hertfordshire, United Kingdom

Kroupa A.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Andersson D.,Swerea IVF | Hoo N.,ITRI Ltd | Pearce J.,ITRI Ltd | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

The substitution of lead in the electronics industry is one of the key issues in the current drive towards ecological manufacturing. Legislation has already banned the use of lead in solders for mainstream applications (T M≈220 °C), but the use of lead in the solders for high-temperature applications (>85% lead, T M≈250-350 °C) is still exempt in RoHS2. The search for proper substitutes has been ongoing among solder manufacturers only for a decade without finding a viable low cost alternative and is the subject of intensive research. This article tries to map the current situation in the field of high-temperature lead-free soldering, presenting a short review of current legislation, requirements for substitute alloys, and finally it describes some existing solutions both in the field of promising new materials and new technologies. Currently, there is no drop-in replacement for lead-containing solders and therefore both the new materials and the new technologies may be viable solutions for production of reliable lead-free joints for high-temperature applications. © ASM International. Source

Cusack P.A.,ITRI Ltd
24th Annual Conference on Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Polymeric Materials 2013

Although a wide range of chemicals have found use as fire retardants over the years, many are facing increasing scrutiny either because of their inherent toxicity or their negative impacts in the environment. In view of a clear industrial demand for safer fire retardants, ITRI commenced its work on tin-based FR additives in the mid-1980s. ITRI's research led to the commercial introduction of two specific tin compounds - zinc hydroxystannate (ZHS) and zinc stannate (ZS) - as novel fire-retardant additives with the additional benefit of smoke suppression, and markets for these compounds have increased steadily over the past 20 years or so. Initially developed as safe alternatives to antimony trioxide for use in PVC and other halogen-containing polymeric materials, recent advances have focused on their application in halogen-free polymers and market growth is evident in the European and Japanese electronic sectors. This paper gives an overview of recent work carried out at ITRI covering applications in halogen-free electronics, cables and fire-protective coatings, with particular reference to the development of novel tin additives, based on proprietary nano-particulate and coating technologies. © (2013) by BCC Research. All rights reserved. Source

Shelton R.D.,ITRI Ltd | Lewison G.,Kings College London | Lewison G.,Evaluametrics Ltd

The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) is one of the world's most secretive and reclusive states. In scientometrics, even the United Nations, which compiles data from every country of the world, has been able to do little beyond counting the few scientific papers made publicly available (UNESCO 2010). The world could benefit from knowing more about North Korean science, which is quite well developed-witness all the concern about their nuclear energy and rocket launches. Here an analysis is presented of the North Korean presence in the world's scientific literature, and of the possibilities for collaboration which offers a mechanism for positive development for their citizens and also for their neighbours. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary. Source

ITRI Ltd | Date: 2016-01-19

Tin containers for transport; general purpose tin storage containers; Industrial packaging containers of tin; small items of tin hardware, namely, tin capsules covering tops of wine and spirit bottles.

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and Sn-containing LDHs have been synthesized using a co-precipitation method, and the resulting products have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Brunauer-Emmett- Teller(BET) surface area measurement, clearly showing that Sn-containing LDH hybrids have been successfully prepared. TEM shows the 'house-of-cards' structure of the Sn-LDHs produced, resulting from the edge-to-face interaction of the LDH layers. Higher tin levels lead to an additional magnesium hydroxystannate, MgSn(OH)6, ('MHS') phase that is present in the form of approximately 40-nm cubic particles in an LDH/MHS hybrid structure. FTIR and XRD suggest that, at low levels of Sn, the Sn4+ may exist in the form of amorphous hydrated tin(IV) oxide rather than being incorporated into the LDH lattice. These powders have been compounded into poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), and their fire performance has been evaluated using limited oxygen index and cone calorimeter techniques. Peak rate of heat release and smoke parameter can be reduced by 64% and 81%, respectively, when replacing 10 wt% of the primary ATH fire-retardant filler by the synthesized Sn-LDHs, while keeping the total fire-retardant loading at 100 phr. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that Sn-LDH is an effective char promoter for PVC. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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