Ito Hospital

Tokyo, Japan

Ito Hospital

Tokyo, Japan
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Kakudo K.,Kinki University | Kakudo K.,Wakayama Medical University | Kameyama K.,Keio University | Kameyama K.,Ito Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Endocrine Journal | Year: 2014

The Japan Thyroid Association (JTA) recently published new guidelines for clinical management of thyroid nodules. This paper introduces their diagnostic system for reporting thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology. There are two points where the new reporting system that differs from existing internationally-accepted ones. The first is the sub classification of the so-called indeterminate category, which is divided into 'follicular neoplasm' and 'others'. The second is the sub classification of follicular neoplasm into 'favor benign', 'borderline' and 'favor malignant'. It is characterized by self-explanatory terminologies as to histological type and probability of malignancy to establish further risk stratification as well as to facilitate communication between clinicians and cytopathologists. The different treatment strategies adopted for thyroid nodules is deeply influenced by the particular diagnostic system used for thyroid cytology. In Western countries all patients with follicular neoplasms are advised to have immediate diagnostic surgery while patients in Japan often undergo further risk stratification without immediate surgery. The JTA diagnostic system of reporting thyroid cytology is designed for further risk stratification of patients with indeterminate cytology. If a surgeon applies diagnostic lobectomy to all patients with follicular neoplasm unselectively, this sub classification of follicular neoplasm has no practical meaning and is unnecessary. Cytological risk stratification of follicular neoplasms is optional and cytopathologists can choose either a simple 6-tier system without stratification of follicular neoplasm or a complicated 8-tier system depending on their experience in thyroid cytology and clinical management. © The Japan Endocrine Society.

Akaishi J.,Ito Hospital | Sugino K.,Ito Hospital | Kitagawa W.,Ito Hospital | Nagahama M.,Ito Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Thyroid | Year: 2011

Background: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a malignancy with one of the highest fatality rates. Here we report a retrospective study of the treatment and other factors associated with its outcomes. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 100 patients diagnosed with ATC at Ito Hospital between 1993 and 2009 were reviewed and pertinent information was extracted and analyzed. Results: There were 80 women and 20 men, and their median age at diagnosis was 68 years (range, 41-90 years). Thirteen patients had a history of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Six patients had a small ATC focus within a differentiated carcinoma. All cases were retrospectively staged according to the Union for International Cancer Control classification system, and the results were stage IVA in 11 cases, stage IVB in 31 cases, and stage IVC in 58 cases. Seventy patients underwent surgical treatment, and complete resection was performed in 24 of them. Seventy-eight patients received radiotherapy, and 58 of them received a total dose of ≥40 Gy. Twenty-seven patients received chemotherapy. Only 15 patients received multimodal therapy (surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy). The 1-year survival rates according to stage were as follows: stage IVA, 72.7%; stage IVB, 24.8%; and stage IVC, 8.2%. Multivariate analysis identified age ≥70 years, white blood cell ≥10,000 mm 3, extrathyroidal invasion, and distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis as prognostic factors. Survival after complete resection was significantly better than after incomplete resection or no resection. The results also suggested that radiation doses of ≥40 Gy were associated with significantly longer survival. Conclusion: Although the prognosis of most patients with ATC continues to be poor, surgery, radiotherapy, and a combination of both improved the survival of patients with ATC. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Sugitani I.,Cancer Institute Hospital | Miyauchi A.,Kuma Hospital | Sugino K.,Ito Hospital | Okamoto T.,Tokyo Women's Medical University | And 2 more authors.
World Journal of Surgery | Year: 2012

Background Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) accounts for only 1 to 2% of all thyroid carcinomas, but it is one of the most lethal neoplasms in humans. To date, most findings about ATC have been derived from singleinstitution studies with limited numbers of cohorts. To obtain further insights into this ''orphan disease,'' we have established a multicenter registry, the ATC Research Consortium of Japan (ATCCJ). We analyzed prognostic factors and treatment outcomes using the large cohort database of the ATCCJ. Methods Most of the Japanese centers involved in the treatment of thyroid cancer were invited to join the ATCCJ and have provided information on ATC patients treated between 1995 and 2008. The database includes 677 cases from 38 registered institutions. Survival curves were determined using Kaplan-Meier methods and were compared using the log-rank test. Cox's proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis. Results Clinical varieties of ATC were classified into four types: common type (n = 547); incidental type (n = 29); anaplastic transformation at the neck (n = 95); anaplastic transformation at a distant site (n = 6). The incidental type followed by anaplastic transformation at the neck showed better outcomes than the other types. Anaplastic transformation at a distant site showed the worst outcomes. The 6-month and 1-year cause-specific survival (CSS) rates for common-type ATC were 36 and 18%, respectively. In all, 84 (15%) achieved long-term (>1 year) survival. Multivariate analysis identified age ≥70 years, presence of acute symptoms, leukocytosis (white blood cell count ≥10,000/mm 3), large tumor >5 cm, T4b tumor, and distant metastasis as significant risk factors for lower survival. CSS rates also differed significantly depending on UICC stages, with 6-month CSSs of 60% for stage IVA, 45% for IVB, and 19% for IVC. For 36 of 69 (52%) stage IVA patients who underwent radical surgery, adjuvant therapies, including radiation therapy (RTX) and chemotherapy (CTX) did not show additional benefit statistically. Conversely, among 242 stage IVB patients, 80 (33%) underwent radical surgery. For those patients, therapies combining RTX with CTX significantly improved CSS. Conclusions Long-term survival is possible for selected patients with ATC. To determine the treatment strategy, UICC stage (disease extent) and other prognostic factors (e.g., biologic malignancy grade) should be considered. © Société Internationale de Chirurgie 2011.

Takami H.,Ito Hospital | Ito Y.,Kuma Hospital | Okamoto T.,Tokyo Women's Medical University | Onoda N.,Osaka City University | And 2 more authors.
World Journal of Surgery | Year: 2014

Background: In 2010, the Japanese Society of Thyroid Surgeons (JSTS) and Japanese Association of Endocrine Surgeons (JAES) established new guidelines entitled "Treatment of Thyroid Tumors." Since then, several new studies, including those that address the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) have been published, and the DTC treatment policy not only of Japanese physicians but those in Western countries has continued to evolve. Methods: We selected six clinical questions regarding the treatment of DTC and revisited them based on newly published data from Western countries and Japan. Results: More data have accumulated about treatment of low-risk papillary microcarcinoma. It has become clear that conservative treatment (observation) of low-risk papillary microcarcinoma in elderly patients is an acceptable alternative to immediate surgery. Total thyroidectomy versus hemithyroidectomy for low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has become an important issue, and some publications after 2010 indicated that hemithyroidectomy is adequate for these low-risk patients. Unfortunately, no published manuscripts on prophylactic central node dissection offered good evidence regarding its indications or included a large number of patients. Also, it was not evident that prophylactic lateral node dissection improves cause-specific survival, although it might reduce lymph node recurrence especially in PTC patients with large tumors, distant metastases, or clinical central node metastases. Although completion total thyroidectomy was not recommended for minimally invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma in our guidelines, it may be better to perform it in elderly patients and those with a large tumor or extensive vascular invasion. Radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation after total thyroidectomy is still performed almost routinely in many Western institutions, although recent studies showed that ablation is not beneficial in low-risk patients. In Japan, because of legal restrictions, most patients did not undergo RAI ablation, and their prognoses are excellent. Conclusions: Recently, policy for treating DTCs has changed not only in Western countries but also in Japan, resulting in a gradual move toward consensus between Western practice and ours. We will continue to present the best treatments for patients with thyroid carcinoma each time we revise our guidelines. © 2014 Société Internationale de Chirurgie.

Yoshida A.,Kanagwa Cancer Center | Sugino K.,Ito Hospital | Sugitani I.,Nippon Medical School | Miyauchi A.,Kuma Hospital
World Journal of Surgery | Year: 2014

Background: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is occasionally found on postoperative pathological examination of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). There is no general consensus on how we should treat these incidentally diagnosed ATC (incidental ATC). Materials and methods: A total of 675 patients with ATC were registered with the ATC Research Consortium of Japan. These patients were treated between 1995 and 2008 in 38 registered institutions. About 81 % of the ATC patients had common-type ATC and about 14 % had ATC co-existing with a metastatic DTC lesion. The remaining 5 % had incidental ATC. Among the patients with incidental ATC, we investigated 25 patients whose clinical data were fully available. We examined the clinical profile of incidental ATC, and the relationships between treatment and outcome in patients with incidental ATC. Results: The tumor size was clearly smaller, and patients with extrathyroid invasion or distant metastasis were significantly fewer in incidental ATC than in common-type ATC. Most incidental ATC coexisted with papillary carcinoma. While the clinical course of incidental ATC was favorable compared with common-type ATC, half of the patients had disease-related deaths. The prognostic factors of incidental ATC were nearly the same as those of common-type ATC, but the tumor size alone was an independent factor on multivariate analysis. Regarding treatments, the outcome was more favorable in those who underwent curative resection, and the clinical course showed a slight improvement by the addition of external beam radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy after curative resection, but it did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: Incidental ATC is the only curable type of ATC, and further studies are needed to establish the effectiveness of additional postoperative radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy in incidental ATC. © 2014 Société Internationale de Chirurgie.

Watanabe N.,Ito Hospital | Narimatsu H.,Yamagata University | Noh J.Y.,Ito Hospital | Yamaguchi T.,Tohoku University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Context: Although antithyroid drug (ATD)-induced hematopoietic damage is a significant concern, it has not been comprehensively investigated. Objective: Our objective was to describe the clinical features of ATD-induced hematopoietic damage. Design and Setting: This was a retrospective cohort study in Tokyo, Japan. Patients: Between January 1983 and December 2002, 50,385 patients at Ito Hospital were diagnosed with Graves' disease. We retrospectively reviewed their medical, pathological, and laboratory records between January 1983 and December 2010. Main Outcome: Incidence and clinical features of ATD-induced agranulocytosis and pancytopenia were evaluated. Results: Of 55 patients with documented hematopoietic damage, 50 had a granulocytosis and 5 had pancytopenia. All of them received ATD, either methimazole (n = 51) or propylthiouracil (n = 4). Median intervals between initiation of ATD therapy and the onset of agranulocytosis and pancytopenia were 69 d (range, 11-233 d) and 41 d (range, 32-97 d), respectively. Either anemia or thrombocytopenia was also documented in seven of the 50 patients with agranulocytosis. Agranulocytosis was the first manifestation of hematopoietic damage in four of the five patents with pancytopenia. Hematopoietic damage recovered with supportive measures including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (n = 37), steroids (n = 10), and other supportive measures (n = 8) in 54 patients, whereas the remaining patient died of complications from infection. This study failed to identify the risk factors for ATD-induced hematopoietic damage. Conclusions: This study showed that ATD cause hematopoietic changes, which are occasionally severe and potentially fatal. The pathogenesis of agranulocytosis and pancytopenia might overlap, and additional studies are warranted to clarify this and to establish an optimal treatment strategy. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society.

Yoshihara A.,Ito Hospital | Noh J.Y.,Ito Hospital | Yamaguchi T.,Tohoku University | Ohye H.,Ito Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Background: Several reports have suggested that propylthiouracil (PTU) may be safer than methimazole (MMI) for treating thyrotoxicosis during pregnancy because congenital malformations have been associated with the use of MMI during pregnancy. Objectives: We investigated whether in utero exposure to antithyroid drugs resulted in a higher rate of major malformations than among the infants born to a control group of pregnant women. Methods: We reviewed the cases of women with Graves' disease who became pregnant. The pregnancy outcomes of 6744 women were known, and there were 5967 live births. MMI alone had been used to treat 1426 of the women, and 1578 women had been treated with PTU alone. The 2065 women who had received no medication for the treatment of Graves' disease during the first trimester served as the control group. The remaining women had been treated with potassium iodide, levothyroxine, or more than one drug during the first trimester. The antithyroid drugs were evaluated for associations with congenital malformations. Results: The overall rate of major anomalies in the MMI group was 4.1% (50 of 1231), and it was significantly higher than the 2.1% (40 of 1906) in the control group (P = 0.002), but there was no increase in the overall rate of major anomalies in the PTU group in comparison with the control group (1.9%; 21 of 1399; P = 0.709). Seven of the 1231 newborns in the MMI group had aplasia cutis congenita, six had an omphalocele, seven had a symptomatic omphalomesenteric duct anomaly, and one had esophageal atresia. Hyperthyroidism in the first trimester of pregnancy did not increase the rate of congenital malformation. Conclusions: In utero exposure to MMI during the first trimester of pregnancy increased the rate of congenital malformations, and it significantly increased the rate of aplasia cutis congenita, omphalocele, and a symptomatic omphalomesenteric duct anomaly. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society.

Noh J.Y.,Ito Hospital
Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine | Year: 2012

Silent thyroiditis and subacute thyroiditis are important causes of transient thyrotoxicosis from rapidly progressive tissue injury, followed by the release of thyroid hormone into the circulation. The most striking differences between them are severe pain and extreme tenderness in the thyroid region. Although the etiology of these diseases is not clarified, silent thyroiditis is basically occurred in autoimmune thyroiditis. The most difficult differential diagnosis of silent thyroiditis is Graves' disease. TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) is useful, but TRAb is rarely positive in silent thyroiditis. A low thyroid radioiodine uptake value is most useful in identified silent thyroiditis.

Kunii Y.,Ito Hospital
Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine | Year: 2013

Heart is easy to be affected by the abnormal thyroid function because cardiac muscle cells have many thyroid hormone receptors. In addition, thyroid hormone goes higher sensitivity to sympathetic nerve as it increases the number of myocardial beta receptor. Therefore, when the thyroid hormone is excessive value, tachycardia and atrial fibrillation may occur regardless of the cause. The atrial fibrillation in Graves' disease can expect spontaneous reversion to sinus rhythm when the hyperthyroidism is controlled. However, cardioversion is indicated for patients who have not returned to sinus rhythm for at least 3 months after the hyperthyroidism is controlled. In this paper, we report the relationship between hyperthyroidism and heart, and the treatment of atrial fibrillation in Graves' disease.

Otsuka F.,Ito Hospital | Otsuka F.,Showa University | Noh J.Y.,Ito Hospital | Chino T.,Ito Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Objective Use of the antithyroid drugs (ATDs) thiamazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU) is associated with a high frequency of side effects. When patients experience side effects with one (the 1st) ATD, it is usually discontinued and another is administered (the 2nd ATD). We investigated side effects associated with the 1st and 2nd ATDs. Design and Patients Four hundred forty-nine patients with untreated Graves' disease (GD) were randomly assigned to three groups according to ATD type and/or dosage: 15 mg/day MMI, 30 mg/day MMI and 300 mg/day PTU. The type, frequency and onset of side effects were assessed. We also studied the side effects associated with the 2nd ATD after cessation of the 1st ATD. Measurements Cutaneous reactions, liver dysfunction and other side effects were examined every 2 weeks after starting ATD administration. Results The overall frequency of side effects in patients taking 15 mg/day MMI was low. The frequencies of cutaneous reactions in patients taking 30 mg/day MMI and hepatotoxicity in those taking 300 mg/day PTU were high. Hepatotoxicity developed later than cutaneous reactions with PTU. Hepatotoxicity developed earlier in the 30 mg/day MMI group than in the other two groups. The frequency of side effects did not differ between the 2nd and 1st ATDs. Hepatotoxicity occurred at a higher frequency in patients who were switched from MMI to PTU because of hepatotoxicity of the former. Conclusion Attention to the onset times of side effects and cross-reactivity of ATDs can lead to safer treatment of GD. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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