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Gwalior, India

Khatri P.,ITM | Tapaswi S.,ABV IIITM
Computer Systems Science and Engineering

Intelligence can be added to machines by exploiting fuzzy systems. This paper presents a scheme for developing trust among the nodes of an ad-hoc network using a fuzzy system. Ad-hoc networks are infrastructure-less, self-organizing networks, in which the nodes are completely hooked into themselves for taking any call as there is no Central Authority (CA). Trust evaluation using a fuzzy system helps in making routing decisions for secure information transmission. In the planned approach, the fuzzy system is incorporated using MATLAB and increases the performance of the whole network. In this work, the trust-based Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol has been tested on Network Simulator-2 (NS-2), and the results show an enhanced reduction in the packets dropped by the nodes in the network. © 2012 Pallavi Khatri et al. Source

Crawled News Article
Site: http://www.fastcompany.com

They say variety is the spice of life—but it can be downright poisonous to your career path. Maybe it took you a while to figure out your passion, so you dabbled in this and that. Perhaps you made a few detours in light of the tough job market. Or maybe you’re one of the millions of people juggling distinct part-time gigs rather than one full-time role. Exploring different options can work in your favor because it broadens your experience and exposes you to a variety of fields. Problem is, when you apply for a position you really want that speaks to your skill set and professional goals, hiring managers might pass you up in favor of candidates who took a more linear route. Career experts are seeing an increase in jack-of-all-trades job hunters, something they attribute to a couple of different factors. "Because of all the layoffs during the recession, workers were forced to take jobs they didn’t really want that might not have been the best fit," says Hannah Morgan, career strategist at Career Sherpa. The go-getter spirit of the millennial generation also comes into play. If millennials don’t receive promotions as quickly as they’d like, they tend to move on to a more desirable position, says Morgan, even if it’s not exactly on their career trajectory. Yet despite all the job hopefuls with generalist backgrounds, employers are increasingly seeking candidates who have specialized expertise. Since there’s no longer an expectation of lifetime employment with a single company, many companies aren’t committed to developing and training employees, Morgan says. "They know someone is out there who has the exact skills they want, and it makes their lives easier not to train them," she says. If your resume features some seemingly unconnected positions, the trick is to weave them together into a cohesive narrative that assures employers you possess the skills they’re after and gets them excited about hiring you. Here are strategies that can help you do just that—so you can transform your job-hopper history from a liability to an advantage. Take a hard look at where you’ve been career-wise and where you want to go. Then begin to paint a picture for hiring managers that explains why your job history actually has been a logical progression, although your path has been circuitous. For example, you had one job in marketing and another in accounting because ultimately you want to manage a company, and you sought experience in both departments to round out your knowledge. Once you bridge each job to the next, make light of the benefits of having a generalist background. Rather than something to play down, you recast it as a marketable skill. "Let’s say an employer wants someone who comes up to speed quickly," Morgan says. "A job-hopper has done that." In your resume and cover letter, brand yourself as someone who makes a fast impact in the workplace. In addition, "generalists can provide a broad perspective to the business, which can be very valuable," says Sharlyn Lauby, an author, speaker, and president of consulting firm ITM Group. "But organizations still need generalists to produce—so make sure your resume can show specific results, and quantify them whenever possible." Including a line like "mastered new operating procedures and increased efficiency by 15% within three months" highlights how you’ve made a speedy, measurable improvement. Without those details, your resume could send the wrong message. "If you are not specific about your contributions in each role on your resume, some readers may assume the reason you keep moving from job to job is that you aren’t succeeding or you don’t know what you want to do," says Miriam Salpeter, owner of Keppie Careers. "Instead of just creating a laundry list of the tasks you’ve done in each role, incorporate detailed explanations of skills you used and outline your accomplishments." She suggests reading through your resume, and for every item listed, ask yourself, "So what?" Your bullet points should bring to light explicit, ideally quantifiable outcomes that you’ve achieved. Remember that recruiters get dozens of job applications daily, and if they don’t immediately see that you fit the description of the employee they’re looking for, they may move on. "Candidates need to help recruiters help them," Lauby says. Your resume and cover letter need to make connections that tell the complete story. The best way to do that is to tailor your resume and cover letter to fit the job description. Many job hunters simply skim the company’s posting, slightly tweak their resume accordingly, and shoot it off to HR. But if you want to set the hiring manager’s mind at ease about your wide-ranging history, don’t gloss over this crucial piece of info. "The job description explains point-blank what the employer is looking for," Morgan says. "What you talk about on your resume has to match up exactly." Of course, we aren’t suggesting that you regurgitate the same language used in the description; instead, include a separate, concrete example from your experience that speaks to each requirement. For instance, Morgan suggests that if the job posting mentions that the candidate must be able to generate new business, one of the bullet points on your resume should touch on a moment when you did precisely that. The looser the connection, the more creative thinking required on your part—e.g., you developed outreach to a new community or improved customer relations with a key client, leading them to recommend your services to others. "It’s possible you have a very similar experience in a different industry," Morgan says. The goal is to find a common point of intersection between your past and the position you’re applying for. If you have the sense that your work history might be problematic for the employer you’re meeting with, it’s a good idea to address it. "Know what your elephants in the room are," Morgan says. When asked about your experience and qualifications, explain how your past jobs have taught you to use the particular skills that the hiring manager is looking for. For example, your tech skills are top-notch because job-hopping forced you to quickly master many programs. Acclimating to different work environments has polished your team building and collaboration smarts, which helped enhance the business. Clarify that you moved around because you naturally seek challenges and the opportunity to make a measurable impact. "Say, ‘I was looking for a greater challenge in the workplace, so I moved on to find that challenge and make an impact more quickly,’" Morgan suggests. If the employer directly asks about your short-term track record, it could be a sign that she worries you might jump ship if you join her team. "Emphasize that you contribute your utmost in every job," Salpeter says. "Then elaborate on the skills you’ll bring to her organization, why you’re so excited about the position, and how well prepared you are to contribute on day one." Pay close attention to the summary portion of LinkedIn, where you can clarify your top skills as well as the direction you hope to head in career-wise before employers even get to the actual resume listing your experience. Salpeter suggests phrasing things in a way that sets you up as a challenge seeker who gets results fast. Eliminate doubt about your commitment to the job by saying something like, "I’ve had the opportunity to use xyz expertise to accomplish [fill in the blank] in various roles over the past several years. Working in different environments kept my skills sharp and allowed me to stay on the cutting edge. As a result, my employers see that I’m able to accomplish more in a short period of time than many people who have been at the organization long term. I’m always continuing to learn, and hope to work for a company that will allow me to grow and contribute at increasing levels over time." Social media can also help foster the impression of commitment—something that a too-broad background might imply you’re lacking. "Use your Twitter feed or actively participate in a LinkedIn group to demonstrate your professional know-how and interest," Salpeter says. "Consistently sharing insights, articles, and resources with people shows that you’re well informed about the field and you follow it closely." Once you put all these techniques in play, hiring managers should be able to clearly understand the rationale behind your all-over-the-map job choices and see how they fit naturally together. You’ll be perceived as perhaps an even more powerful candidate than someone who’s climbed the ladder with laser-like focus. This article originally appeared on LearnVest and is reprinted with permission.

Crawled News Article
Site: http://www.theenergycollective.com/rss/all

The technology that produces hydrogen using renewable electricity has already passed crucial regulatory tests for grid balancing in a commercial environment, despite what I said here a month ago. For over 30 years the prophets of green energy have been promoting the idea that the “hydrogen age” is just around the corner. The gas is abundant in the form of water, molecules of which possess two hydrogen atoms for every oxygen atom. Making it from water using electrolysis releases only oxygen and no pollutants. It can then be burnt in any suitable boiler, cooker or vehicle and used in fuel cells. All we have to do is get it to the right place at the right time at the right price. The problem has always been the right price, which provides the market incentive for investment in the necessary infrastructure. A month ago I wrote a piece on a proposal to convert the UK’s gas grid to hydrogen. The reports I covered judged that the most likely route to creating the hydrogen was through the steam reforming of methane. This is not a climate friendly way of doing it, although it is currently by far the most common. In a low carbon future, producing hydrogen this way in the required quantities would be unlikely without the ability to capture the carbon released by this process and store it underground, a relatively unproven and expensive process dubbed Carbon Capture and Storage. I had compared in my article the cost of steam reforming with CCS with the cost of producing hydrogen by the electrolysis of water using wind or solar power. My source for the latter information was an apparently reliable one: the Energy Institute of University College London, which produced a report in April last year authored by Samuel L Weeks about using hydrogen as a fuel source in internal combustion engines. This states: “Hydrogen produced by electrolysis of water is extremely expensive, around US$1500/kWh [AU$1959/kWh]. The editor of The Ecologist magazine, Oliver Tickell, pulled me up on this, observing that it struck him as being way too expensive. I tried to get Professor Weeks and the UCL Energy Institute to give me the source for the $1500 figure but so far have not had a response. So instead I turned to a company that is already making hydrogen from renewable electricity for grid balancing and fuel cell powered cars: ITM Power. They provided me with another professor, Marcus Newborough, who is their development director. He gave me a much lower figure. He said: “We are currently selling high purity hydrogen at our refuelling stations for fuel cell cars at £10/kg of hydrogen. Each kilogram contains 39.4kWh of energy, so that’s about 25 pence/kWh or $0.33/kWh. The ambition is to decrease the $/kWh value as more stations are manufactured and more FC cars are in circulation. So yes the $1500/kWh number looks absurd to us.” Indeed it does. It is 4545 times larger, if we are comparing like with like. And I apologise for not checking more thoroughly. And I’m still mighty curious as to why UCL Energy Institute got it so wrong. Not only is ITM using the gas for hydrogen car filling stations, a chain of which it is opening in the UK (on a full tank of hydrogen a fuel cell car can drive up to 300 miles), it is also using it to inject into the grid. The process is called power-to-gas (P2G) and it is useful when too much renewable electricity is being produced compared to the demand that exists at that moment. Instead of it going to waste it could be used to produce hydrogen as a form of energy storage and used when required. Professor Newborough said, “The power-to-gas approach is a form of energy storage and (in the UK) there are various assessments and discussions ongoing [through organisations such as BEIS (the new UK government department dealing with energy and industry), OFGEM (the British energy regulator), UK National Grid, DG Energy in Brussels (the European Commission’s department dealing with energy) and The European Association for Storage of Energy] but no conclusive economic framework yet for energy storage to operate within.” He said P2G was particularly advantageous for its following abilities: “P2G is part of this alongside batteries, pumped storage, etcetera,” he said. “Fundamentally the economic benefit is greatest for those technologies that possess the operational advantages of being able to respond very rapidly and/or hold onto the energy for a long period and/or discharge energy at a controllable rate across a very long period. Now power-to-gas is particularly advantageous in each of these respects.” ITM has a pilot P2G system operational in Frankfurt with 12 other companies that together form the Thüga group. At the end of 2013, this plant injected hydrogen for the first time into the Frankfurt gas distribution network. It therefore became the first plant to inject electrolytic generated hydrogen into the German gas distribution network, and possibly anywhere in the world. Final acceptance of the plant was achieved at the end of March 2014. Overall efficiency is said to be over 70 per cent and the plant is now participating in Germany’s secondary control (grid balancing) market. The conditions for being allowed to do this are extremely stringent. Systems have to respond in under one second when they receive a command to increase to maximum power or decrease to zero power to demonstrate that they are suitable for frequency regulation. The energy is discharged as hydrogen and should be available for as long as required. The Frankfurt system has been shown to do this and can react to variable loads in the network. Work is ongoing to see how the plant can be integrated into an increasingly intelligent future energy system. “For the duration of the demonstration, we want to integrate the plant so that it actively contributes to compensating for the differences between renewable energy generation and power consumption,” Thüga chief executive Michael Riechel said. Professor Newborough told me that the payment levels for providing such services have yet to emerge. In the UK, the national grid is introducing an Enhanced Frequency Response service to pay energy storage technology operators to provide sub-second response. “ITM has already pre-qualified to provide such a service,” he said. They are also introducing a Demand Turn Up service, which will pay operators £60/MWh (AU$102/MWh) for operating overnight and on summer afternoons to absorb excess wind and solar power. “Clearly the economics of P2G are a function of such balancing services payments from the grid operator and the electricity tariff,” he said, “but in addition P2G offers a greening agent to the gas grid operator in the form of injecting hydrogen at low concentrations into natural gas. “So the economics are also a function of the value placed on greening up the gas grid. By analogy we have seen in recent years in France, Germany and the UK, feed-in tariffs for injecting bio-methane into the gas grid as a greening agent and these have been up to four times the value of a kWh of natural gas. “The economic case therefore depends on a combination of value propositions and costs – providing services to the electricity grid, the electricity tariff paid, the value of green gas for the gas grid and the capital cost of the plant. In this context it is not possible to state firm figures at this time, but equally it is important to state the underpinning factors as described above.” It was at this point in our conversation that he gave me the price at which the company is currently selling high purity hydrogen at its fuel cell car refuelling stations. A report on energy storage undertaken by McKinsey and Co last year found that using variable renewable electricity this way could use nearly all excess renewable energy in a scenario in the future in which there was a high installed capacity of renewable electricity generation. Reusing this stored energy in the gas grid, for transport or in industry, it said, would provide a valuable contribution to decarbonising these sectors. The European potential, in 2050, of this value would be “in the hundreds of gigawatts”. This future scenario, in which countries are reliant for much of the electricity on renewables, is likely to be common. The Kinsey report contrasts the use of hydrogen with the use of batteries, which it calls power-to-power or P2P because it’s electricity rather than gas that comes out. In this situation hydrogen scores better as a storage medium because batteries can either be emptied (in which case they can’t supply the demand) or full (in which case they can not be charged even if the generator is generating). By contrast, hydrogen can continue to be pumped into the grid or into vehicles and the limiting factor instead is the limit of local demand for the distance to the demand from the generator. This is shown in the following diagram: Nevertheless the Kinsey report warns that current regulations lag behind the potential of these technologies. Reviewing them is the key to unlocking this enormous opportunity. So it now seems that the most likely route to creating the hydrogen that goes into our gas grids could be from electrolysis using renewables after all. Yet, like many cutting-edge low carbon technologies, it’s early days. The Germans are pioneering this method as part of their transition strategy. It’s one part of the picture. With the UK Met office this week saying that we have already reached 1.38°C temperature rise since the beginning of the industrial revolution and the Paris Agreement aspiring to keeping that rise to 1.5°C, the task of mainstreaming these technologies becomes even more urgent. This article is republished from The Fifth Estate. Originally published on 9 August. David Thorpe is the author of:

This paper proposes an auto-tuning control system to ensure a fast response of the photovoltaic (PV) voltage by reducing the perturbation time of a P&O algorithm. This solution accelerates the tracking of the maximum power point and, at the same time, guarantees the system stability, which increases the amount of energy produced by the PV system. The control system consists of three cascaded controllers: a P&O algorithm dynamically parameterized by the adaptive law in order to guarantee stability; an adaptive PI controller whose parameters are modified by the adaptive law, depending on the operating conditions, to reduce the settling time of the system as much as possible; and a sliding mode current controller to mitigate environmental and load perturbations and ensure global stability. The design of the new control structure is supported by mathematical analyses and validated with simulations performed in PSIM in order to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed solution. © 2015, Revista Ingenieria e Investigacion - Editorial Board. All rights reserved. Source

Vibha U.,ITM
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

Platinum complex of thaizolidinone of propylene-bis-anil has been synthesized from thaizolidinone of propylene-bis-anil. The solution of k4PtCl6 thaizolidinone in acetone / methanol was mixed together in 5:2 molar ratio and refluxed. From the concentrated reaction mixture solid was isolated on crystallization. Thaizolidinone has been synthesized from 1,3-propyl-dianil (which is the condensation product of 1,3 diamino propane and o-hydroxy phenyl glyoxal) in dry methanol and thioglycolic acid. The synthesized complex has been characterized by some physico-chemical studies namely I.R. electronic spectral, magnetic conductometric and elemental analysis. Source

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