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Canton G.G.,CINVESTAV | Canton G.G.,CERN | Sagan D.,Ithaca | Cornell U.,Ithaca | Zimmermann F.,CERN
IPAC 2016 - Proceedings of the 7th International Particle Accelerator Conference | Year: 2016

At high proton-beam energies, beam-induced synchrotron radiation is an important source of heating, of beam-related vacuum pressure increase, and of primary photoelectrons, which can give rise to an electron cloud. We use the Synrad3D code developed at Cornell to simulate the photon distributions in the arcs of the LHC, HLLHC, and FCC-hh. Specifically, for the LHC we study the effect of the "sawtooth" chamber, for the HL-LHC the consequences of the ATS optics with large beta beating in the arcs, and for the FCC-hh the effect of a novel beam-screen design, with a long slit surrounded by a "folded" antechamber. Copyright © 2016 CC-BY-3.0 and by the respective authors.

McClosky B.,Ithaca | Arellano J.D.,Rice University | Hicks I.V.,Rice University
Journal of Combinatorial Optimization | Year: 2015

This paper studies co-k-plex vertex partitions and more specifically co-2-plex vertex partitions. Co-k-plexes and k-plexes were first introduced in 1978 in the context of social network analysis. However, the study of co-k-plex vertex partitions or decomposing a graphs into degree bounded subgraphs can be at least dated back to the work of Lovasz (Studia Sci Math Hung 1:237–238, 1966). In this paper, we derive analogues for well-known results on the chromatic number, and present two algorithms for constructing co-2-plex vertex partitions. The first algorithm minimizes the number of partition classes while the second algorithm minimizes a weighted sum of the partition classes, where the weight of a partition class depends on the level of adjacency among its vertices. © 2013, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

PubMed | Gifu University, Ithaca, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati and RIKEN
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant, cell & environment | Year: 2016

Plants have evolved a series of tolerance mechanisms to saline stress, which perturbs physiological processes throughout the plant. To identify genetic mechanisms associated with salinity tolerance, we performed linkage analysis and genome-wide association study (GWAS) on maintenance of root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana in hydroponic culture with weak and severe NaCl toxicity. The top 200 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) determined by GWAS could cumulatively explain approximately 70% of the variation observed at each stress level. The most significant SNPs were linked to the genes of ATP-binding cassette B10 and vacuolar proton ATPase A2. Several known salinity tolerance genes such as potassium channel KAT1 and calcium sensor SOS3 were also linked to SNPs in the top 200. In parallel, we constructed a gene co-expression network to independently verify that particular groups of genes work together to a common purpose. We identify molecular mechanisms to confer salt tolerance from both predictable and novel physiological sources and validate the utility of combined genetic and network analysis. Additionally, our study indicates that the genetic architecture of salt tolerance is responsive to the severity of stress. These gene datasets are a significant information resource for a following exploration of gene function.

Ajmar A.,ITHACA | Boccardo P.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Tonolo F.G.,ITHACA
Italian Journal of Remote Sensing / Rivista Italiana di Telerilevamento | Year: 2011

Haiti was hit by a devastating earthquake on 12 January 2010. Timely triggering of the Earth Observation satellites, and absence of cloud cover, allowed to acquire very high-resolution satellite imagery over the main affected areas within a few hours of the disaster. ITHACA performed a first damage assessment based on remotely sensed data, to support the emergency response activities carried out by the humanitarian agencies. This paper aims to highlight not only the adopted methodology and the main cartographic outputs, but also the operational procedures required to make well known analysis techniques effective in an application context.

Perez F.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Angeluccetti I.,ITHACA | Camaro W.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Demarchi A.,Polytechnic University of Turin
Drought: Research and Science-Policy Interfacing - Proceedings of the International Conference on Drought: Research and Science-Policy Interfacing | Year: 2015

Early Warning Systems (EWS) for drought are currently underdeveloped compared to other hazards. In fact, the multifaceted nature of drought (i.e. hydrological, meteorological, and agricultural) necessitates a number of different ways to measure this phenomenon and its effects. In the present study an approach to identifying and monitoring drought events is presented. The EWS developed is based on the early detection and monitoring of vegetation stress on a global scale. Moreover, a simplified vulnerability model, applied to the hazard data, yields the food security conditions for the investigated area. The model includes agricultural indicators and socio-economic factors linked to people's strategy to supply the food they need. The performance of the proposed EWS is reported for a case study which confirms its potential usefulness for decision-makers and humanitarian actors operating in the context of drought and famine crisis. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

Ajmar A.,ITHACA | Balbo S.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Boccardo P.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Giulio Tonolo F.,ITHACA | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Digital Earth | Year: 2013

Among the major natural disasters that occurred in 2010, the Haiti earthquake was a real turning point concerning the availability, dissemination and licensing of a huge quantity of geospatial data. In a few days several map products based on the analysis of remotely sensed data-sets were delivered to users. This demonstrated the need for reliable methods to validate the increasing variety of open source data and remote sensing-derived products for crisis management, with the aim to correctly spatially reference and interconnect these data with other global digital archives. As far as building damage assessment is concerned, the need for accurate field data to overcome the limitations of both vertical and oblique view satellite and aerial images was evident. To cope with the aforementioned need, a newly developed Low-Cost Mobile Mapping System (LCMMS) was deployed in Port-au-Prince (Haiti) and tested during a five-day survey in February-March 2010. The system allows for acquisition of movies and single georeferenced frames by means of a transportable device easily installable (or adaptable) to every type of vehicle. It is composed of four webcams with a total field of view of about 180 degrees and one Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, with the main aim to rapidly cover large areas for effective usage in emergency situations. The main technical features of the LCMMS, the operational use in the field (and related issues) and a potential approach to be adopted for the validation of satellite/aerial building damage assessments are thoroughly described in the article. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Vassileva M.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Nascetti A.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Giuliotonolo F.,ITHACA | Boccardo P.,Polytechnic University of Turin
International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) | Year: 2015

The present paper is focused on a potential method for unsupervised flood extent classification approach based, on the extraction of radar shadows from SAR simulated image, generated by means of image metadata and an available DSM covering the area of interest. The SAR simulation process is carried out using the SAR Simulator tool, implemented in the free and open SAR PlugIn developed for the Opticks platform. Different tests have been performed using SGF RADARSAT-2 imagery in order to assess the effectiveness of the proposed approach. © 2015 IEEE.

Antonietta F.,ITHACA | Boccardo P.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Tonolo F.G.,ITHACA | Vassileva M.,Polytechnic University of Turin
International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) | Year: 2015

The present paper aims to review the role satellite remote sensing played during the response phase to the largest (in terms of mortality) natural disaster occurred in 2013, i.e. the tropical typhoon Haiyan that struck the Philippines in November 2013. The outcomes of a thorough analysis of the emergency mapping products (about 750 maps) released in the aftermath of the event and in the following weeks are analyzed, with the goal to derive information and statistics on the main product types, the underlying datasets and the input data. Focusing on the damage assessment maps based on satellite data, operational tests on satellite imagery semi-automated classification techniques aimed at automatically extract damaged buildings will be described and discussed. © 2015 IEEE.

Ajmar A.,ITHACA | Boccardo P.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Disabato F.,ITHACA | Giulio Tonolo F.,ITHACA
Rendiconti Lincei | Year: 2015

In recent years an increasing number of extreme meteorological events have been recorded. Geomatics techniques have been historically adopted to support the different phases of the Emergency Management cycle with a main focus on emergency response, initial recovery and preparedness through the acquisition, processing, management and dissemination of geospatial data. In the meantime, the increased availability of geospatial data in terms of reference topographic datasets, made available by authoritative National Mapping Cadastre Agencies or by Collaborative Mapping initiatives like OpenStreetMap, as well as of remotely sensed imagery, poses new challenges to the Geomatics role in defining operational tools and services in support of emergency management activities. This paper is mainly focused on the role of Geomatics in supporting the response phase of the Emergency Management cycle through Rapid Mapping activities, which can be defined as “the on-demand and fast provision (within hours or days) of geospatial information in support of emergency management activities immediately following an emergency event” (source: European Union, Management of geospatial datasets (both reference and thematic), Remote Sensing sensors and techniques and spatial information science methodologies applied to Rapid Mapping will be described, with the goal to highlight the role that Geomatics is currently playing in this domain. The major technical requirements, constraints and research opportunities of a Rapid Mapping service will be discussed, with a specific focus on: the time constraints of the service, the data quality requirements, the need to provide replicable products, the need for consistent data models, the advantages of data interoperability, the automation of feature extraction procedures to reduce the need for Computer Aided Photo Interpretation, the dissemination strategies. © 2015, The Author(s).

Boccardo P.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Tonolo F.G.,ITHACA
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2012

Haiti was hit by a devastating earthquake on 12 January 2010. The immediate response to the disaster was a real turning point concerning the availability, dissemination and licensing of a huge quantity of geospatial data. Timely triggering of the Earth Observation satellites, and absence of cloud cover, allowed to acquire very high-resolution optical satellite imagery (spatial resolution up to 0.5m) over the main affected areas within a few hours of the disaster, while the whole country coverage was completed in a very short time span. Furthermore in the following days aerial imagery, high resolution SAR radar imagery as well as thermal and LiDAR data were widely acquired. The paper will show how well established remote sensing techniques allowed to carry out earthquake damage assessment in a very short time, exploiting the synergic capabilities of geospatial tools and instruments such as EO satellites, Web mapping, GIS software and volunteer mapping. In a few days several map products based on the aforementioned analysis were delivered to end users: a review of the different types and purposes of this products will be provided and discussed. An assessment of the thematic accuracy of remotely sensed based products will be carried out on the basis of a review of the several available studies focused on this issue, including the main outcomes of a validation based on a comparison with in-situ data performed by the authors. © 2012 ISPRS.

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