Na J.,ITER Organization |
Na J.,Kunming University of Science and Technology
International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing | Year: 2013
An alternative adaptive control with prescribed performance is proposed to address the output tracking of nonlinear systems with a nonlinear dead zone input. An appropriate function that characterizes the convergence rate, maximum overshoot, and steady-state error is adopted and incorporated into an output error transformation, and thus the stabilization of the transformed system is sufficient to achieve original tracking control with prescribed performance. The nonlinear dead zone is represented as a time-varying system and Nussbaum-type functions are utilized to deal with the unknown control gain dynamics. A novel high-order neural network with a scalar adaptive weight is developed to approximate unknown nonlinearities, thus the computational costs can be diminished dramatically. Some restrictive assumptions on the system dynamics and the dead-zone are circumvented. Simulations are included to validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Serio L.,ITER Organization
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2010
Nuclear fusion of light nuclei is a promising option to provide clean, safe and cost competitive energy in the future. The ITER experimental reactor being designed by seven partners representing more than half of the world population will be assembled at Cadarache, South of France in the next decade. It is a thermonuclear fusion Tokamak that requires high magnetic fields to confine and stabilize the plasma. Cryogenic technology is extensively employed to achieve low-temperature conditions for the magnet and vacuum pumping systems. Efficient and reliable continuous operation shall be achieved despite unprecedented dynamic heat loads due to magnetic field variations and neutron production from the fusion reaction. Constraints and requirements of the largest superconducting Tokamak machine have been analyzed. Safety and technical risks have been initially assessed and proposals to mitigate the consequences analyzed. Industrial standards and components are being investigated to anticipate the requirements of reliable and efficient large scale energy production. After describing the basic features of ITER and its cryogenic system, we shall present the key design requirements, improvements, optimizations and challenges. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.
Gorelenkov N.N.,Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory |
Pinches S.D.,ITER Organization |
Toi K.,Japan National Institute for Fusion Science
Nuclear Fusion | Year: 2014
The area of energetic particle (EP) physics in fusion research has been actively and extensively researched in recent decades. The progress achieved in advancing and understanding EP physics has been substantial since the last comprehensive review on this topic by Heidbrink and Sadler (1994 Nucl. Fusion 34 535). That review coincided with the start of deuterium-tritium (DT) experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and full scale fusion alphas physics studies. Fusion research in recent years has been influenced by EP physics in many ways including the limitations imposed by the 'sea' of Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs), in particular by the toroidicity-induced AE (TAE) modes and reversed shear AEs (RSAEs). In the present paper we attempt a broad review of the progress that has been made in EP physics in tokamaks and spherical tori since the first DT experiments on TFTR and JET (Joint European Torus), including stellarator/helical devices. Introductory discussions on the basic ingredients of EP physics, i.e., particle orbits in STs, fundamental diagnostic techniques of EPs and instabilities, wave particle resonances and others, are given to help understanding of the advanced topics of EP physics. At the end we cover important and interesting physics issues related to the burning plasma experiments such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). © 2014 IAEA.
Motojima O.,ITER Organization
Nuclear Fusion | Year: 2015
The pace of the ITER project in St Paul-lez-Durance, France is accelerating rapidly into its peak construction phase. With the completion of the B2 slab in August 2014, which will support about 400 000 metric tons of the tokamak complex structures and components, the construction is advancing on a daily basis. Magnet, vacuum vessel, cryostat, thermal shield, first wall and divertor structures are under construction or in prototype phase in the ITER member states of China, Europe, India, Japan, Korea, Russia, and the United States. Each of these member states has its own domestic agency (DA) to manage their procurements of components for ITER. Plant systems engineering is being transformed to fully integrate the tokamak and its auxiliary systems in preparation for the assembly and operations phase. CODAC, diagnostics, and the three main heating and current drive systems are also progressing, including the construction of the neutral beam test facility building in Padua, Italy. The conceptual design of the Chinese test blanket module system for ITER has been completed and those of the EU are well under way. Significant progress has been made addressing several outstanding physics issues including disruption load characterization, prediction, avoidance, and mitigation, first wall and divertor shaping, edge pedestal and SOL plasma stability, fuelling and plasma behaviour during confinement transients and W impurity transport. Further development of the ITER Research Plan has included a definition of the required plant configuration for 1st plasma and subsequent phases of ITER operation as well as the major plasma commissioning activities and the needs of the accompanying R&D program to ITER construction by the ITER parties. © 2015 IAEA, Vienna.
Ikeda K.,ITER Organization
Nuclear Fusion | Year: 2010
On 21 November 2006, the government representatives of China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States firmly committed to building the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)  by signing the ITER Agreement. The ITER Organization, which was formally established on 24 October 2007 after ratification of the ITER Agreement in each Member country, is the outcome of a two-decade-long collaborative effort aimed at demonstrating the scientific and technical feasibility of fusion energy. Each ITER partner has established a Domestic Agency (DA) for the construction of ITER, and the ITER Organization, based in Cadarache, in Southern France, is growing at a steady pace. The total number of staff reached 398 people from more than 20 nations by the end of September 2009. ITER will be built largely (90%) through in-kind contribution by the seven Members. On site, the levelling of the 40 ha platform has been completed. The roadworks necessary for delivering the ITER components from Fos harbour, close to Marseille, to the site are in the final stage of completion. With the aim of obtaining First Plasma in 2018, a new reference schedule has been developed by the ITER Organization and the DAs. Rapid attainment of the ITER goals is critical to accelerate fusion development - a crucial issue today in a world of increasing competition for scarce resources. © 2010 IAEA, Vienna.
Udintsev V.S.,ITER Organization
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2010
Controlled thermonuclear fusion can fulfil the demand of mankind to have an inexhaustible source of energy that does not cause any serious environmental pollution. The aim of fusion research is to build a continuously operating reactor in which the energy released by the fusion reactions is sufficiently high to keep the plasma hot and to produce more fusion reactions. The knowledge of the plasma temperature and density, together with the energy confinement time, is therefore very important for the effective control of the self-sustained fusion reactor. Various methods and diagnostics for measurements of the plasma temperature and density in present experimental fusion devices, as well as requirements for the future fusion reactors, will be discussed. A special attention will be given to the temperature and density diagnostics in ITER tokamak, which is presently under construction by several international partners at Cadarache in France. Development of these diagnostics is a major challenge because of severe environment, strict engineering requirements, safety issues and the need for high reliability in the measurements. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Aleynikov P.,ITER Organization |
Breizman B.N.,University of Texas at Austin
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015
This Letter presents a rigorous kinetic theory for relativistic runaway electrons in the near critical electric field in tokamaks. The theory provides a distribution function of the runaway electrons, reveals the presence of two different threshold electric fields, and describes a mechanism for hysteresis in the runaway electron avalanche. Two different threshold electric fields characterize a minimal field required for sustainment of the existing runaway population and a higher field required for the avalanche onset. The near-threshold regime for runaway electrons determines the time scale of toroidal current decay during runaway mitigation in tokamaks. © 2015 American Physical Society.
Raffray A.R.,ITER Organization |
Merola M.,ITER Organization
Fusion Engineering and Design | Year: 2012
The ITER blanket design has substantially evolved since the ITER design review of 2007. Two major incentives for the design changes have been the need to account for large plasma heat fluxes to the First Wall (FW) and the need for acceptable maintenance of FW panels. In parallel to the design effort, a focused R&D program is being carried out including manufacturing and testing of semi-prototypes for the FW panels, and of full-scale prototypes for the shield blocks. This paper summarizes the status of the ITER blanket system design including the accommodation of interfaces, and describes some of the key R&D activities in support of the design with the goal of starting procurement in the first half of 2013. © 2012 ITER Organization.
Shimada M.,ITER Organization |
Pitts R.A.,ITER Organization
Journal of Nuclear Materials | Year: 2011
Like all tokamaks, ITER will require wall conditioning systems and strategies for successful operation from the point of view of plasma-facing surface preparation. Unlike today's devices however, ITER will have to manage large quantities of tritium fuel, imposing on wall conditioning a major responsibility for tritium inventory control. It will also feature the largest plasma-facing beryllium surface ever used in a tokamak and its high duty cycle and long pulse are expected to lead to the rapid formation of deposited layers in which tritium can accumulate. This paper summarises the currently planned ITER wall conditioning systems and describes the strategy for their use throughout exploitation of the device. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Foussat A.,ITER Organization
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity | Year: 2010
The Correction Coils (CC) of the ITER Tokamak are developed to reduce the range of magnetic error fields created by imperfections in the location and geometry of the other coils used to confine, heat, and shape the plasma. The proposed system consists of three sets of 6 coils each, located at the top (TCC), side (SCC) and bottom (BCC) of the Tokamak device and using a NbTi cable-in-conduit superconducting conductor (CICC). Within each set, the coils are connected in pairs to produce a toroidal field to reduce the most troublesome, lower order, poloidal mode number fields (m=1, 2, 3) in order to operate below the locked mode threshold. The conductor is designed to operate up to 6 T. The winding uses pancakes of one-in-hand conductor (quadpancakes for SCC, octopancakes for TCC and BCC), thus avoiding internal joints. The winding-pack is enclosed inside a 20 mm thick stainless steel casing. The coils are supported by rigid connections to the Toroidal Field (TF) coils. The structural design of the CC is mainly driven by the allowable fatigue stress levels in the conductor jacket, in the case material and in the glass-polyimide electrical insulation system. The boundary conditions on the CC are imposed by the TF coils deformation and the electromagnetic interactions with the PF coils system. The thermo-hydraulic and electrical performance of the CICC is also addressed. © 2006 IEEE.