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Gidenne T.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Garreau H.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Drouilhet L.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Aubert C.,ITAVI | Maertens L.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2017

Despite substantial advances in animal production efficiency over the last 40 years, feed still represents the majority of production costs. The negative impacts of animal production on the environment must be reduced, which implies a reduction of nutrient losses to the environment associated with animal production. Feed efficiency, mostly expressed as feed conversion ratio (FCR), is a key indicator to judge the financial and environmental performance of a farming system. In intensive rabbit breeding, the average farm FCR (maternity + fattening units) in European farms improved from 3.8 to 3.4 during the past 15 years. This translates into a drop in nitrogen and phosphorus output of approximately 10%. This improvement can be attributed to progress in health control, nutritional factors and strategies, management and genetics. To optimize rabbit farm FCR, the reproducing stock as well as the fattening unit must be considered. This review summarizes the impact of different strategies to optimize FCR under intensive production conditions, where rabbits are exclusively fed a pelleted diet. High performing reproduction stock results in a lower FCR in maternity. The use of diets with nutrient levels to optimize digestive health, together with an appropriate feeding restriction after weaning, leads to minimal losses and has a large impact on the FCR. If the different fiber requirements are met, an increase of the dietary energy level, especially in the finishing stage, reduces the FCR by approximately 0.15 points, for an increase of 0.5 MJ DE. Future possibilities for genetic selection for feed efficiency are based on improvements to the residual feed intake. It seems possible to improve feed efficiency further by reducing feed intake without affecting weight gain. Such a genetic improvement would reduce both feed input (reducing costs) and output (reducing environmental impacts). An average farm FCR of 3.0, similar to that of pig breeding, can be reached in the next decade for rabbit meat production. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Travel A.,ITAVI | Nys Y.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Lopes E.,ITAVI
Productions Animales | Year: 2010

Egg quality is greatly influenced by hen physiology, including age, moult and by environmental conditions (temperature, lighting cycle and rearing system). Egg weight increases with hen age, partly due to the increased yolk proportion. Eggshell quality and functional properties of eggs are progressively impaired with hen age. Moult restores, for a shorter production cycle, the progressive degradation in egg production and quality observed at the end of the laying period. High ambient temperature (> 30°C) elicits in hens changes in acido-basic balance and in feed consumption. These changes reduce egg production, egg weight and eggshell strength. Lighting programs applied during the rearing and production periods of hens influence egg production. Ahemeral (> 24 h) and symmetrical cycle programs increase egg weight and eggshell thickness but recent EU directives banned their use. The production system has limited and inconsistent effects on sensorial, nutritional or functional properties of eggs. Furnished cages initially resulted in higher percentages of downgraded eggs but progressive improvements in cage design, of equipments distribution and changes in hen group size allow similar performance to conventional cages if hens are beak trimmed.

Bouvarel I.,ITAVI | Nys Y.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Panheleux M.,CCPA | Lescoat P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Productions Animales | Year: 2010

Farmers are mainly interested by egg weight and eggshell strength. Egg weight is linked with several factors: breeding lines, hen's age and nutrient supply to pullets and hens. Hen's weight at the laying point, energy and protein densities of the diets, amino acid (primarily methionine) and fatty acids (linoleic and oleic) contents impact egg weight. Feed form and feeding system require future research to evaluate quantitatively their effect, keeping in mind that they are meaningful. Eggshell strength is determined by quantitative Ca supply and Ca particle size. Egg product companies are more interested in yolk and albumen contents. The latter are mainly linked with the hen's age. However marginal changes in proportion are observed through protein, amino acids and linoleic acid supplies. For criteria of consumers' interest, a straight link is observed between the fatty acid contents of the diet and of the egg. It is therefore possible to optimize the egg nutritional value through feeding. Macromineral content is stable. However numerous microminerals (Iode, Selenium, Manganese) and fat-solubles vitamins (E, D3, A and K) contents could be modified by the diets. Yolk colour depends on feed supply since hens cannot synthesize carotenoids. However, coloration efficiency is variable depending on the supplied xanthophylls.

Jez C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Beaumont C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Magdelaine P.,ITAVI
Productions Animales | Year: 2010

For about ten years, the French poultry sector has faced both competition from new poultry-exporting countries and growing societal concerns about animal welfare, food safety, and environmental impact of production systems. As such, while world poultry-meat production increased nearly 4% per year during that period, it decreased by 2.3% per year in France, making poultry farmers, public and other private stakeholders worried about the future of poultry farming. To help French stakeholders design their strategies for the future, a technical institute (ITAVI) and a research institute (INRA) conducted a scenario-building exercise. Based on the interviews of stakeholders and an 18 month series of discussions with a Panel of poultry experts, four future scenarios were developed. They go beyond simply extending current trends by taking into account uncertainties such as potential shifts in European policies and regulations, consumer attitudes, and stakeholder strategies. Levers of action were identified by the exploration of different possible futures for poultry in 2025. These strategic options concern the stakeholders' strategies, public policy and research. Although no scenario envisages strong production growth by 2025, all, however, underline the importance of multidisciplinary research to characterize the quality and sustainability of production, and, in turn, to improve competitiveness.

Jlali M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Gigaud V.,ITAVI | Metayer-Coustard S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Sellier N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2012

The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of 2 isoenergetic growing diets with different CP (17 vs. 23%) on the performance and breast meat quality of 2 lines of chicken divergently selected for abdominal fatness [i.e., fat and lean (LL) lines]. Growth performance, breast and abdominal fat yields, breast meat quality parameters (pH, color, drip loss), and muscle glycogen storage at death were measured. Increased dietary CP resulted in increased BW, increased breast meat yield, and reduced abdominal fatness at slaughter regardless of genotype (P < 0.001). By contrast, dietary CP affected glycogen storage and the related meat quality parameters only in the LL chickens. Giving LL chickens the low-CP diet led to reduced concentration of muscle glycogen (P < 0.01), and as a result, breast meat with a higher (P < 0.001) ultimate pH, decreased (P < 0.001) lightness, and reduced (P < 0.001) drip loss during storage. The decreased muscle glycogen content observed in LL receiving the low-CP diet compared with the high-CP diet occurred concomitantly with greater phosphorylation amount for the α-catalytic subunit of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and glycogen synthase. This was consistent with the reduced muscle glycogen content observed in LL fed the low-CP diet because adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase inhibits glycogen synthesis through its action on glycogen synthase. Our results demonstrated that nutrition is an effective means of modulating breast meat properties in the chicken. The results also highlighted the need to take into account interaction with the genetic background of the animal to select nutritional strategies to improve meat quality traits in poultry. © 2012 American Society of Animal Science.

Chen X.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Chen X.,Agrocampus Ouest | Samson E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Tocqueville A.,ITAVI | Aubin J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2015

Trout farming is the main fish production system in France. This article describes a system to classify trout farms based on environmental impacts calculated by life cycle assessment and technical and economic indicators. Since the number of surveyed farms was too small for a robust assessment, we combined principal component analysis (PCA) with a non-parametric bootstrap technique. French trout farms were surveyed to collect technical and economic indicators. The representativeness of the survey was verified by comparing it to a national inventory. Life cycle assessment was used to estimate environmental impacts of farms and the contribution of each production stage to impacts. PCA was used to evaluate both technical-economic and environmental indicators of the trout farms, which were separated into three groups based on the size of fish produced (pan-size, large and mixed-size, and very large). Non-parametric bootstrap was used to compare the groups and to test the significance of PCA results. Results validated the fish-farm classification system based on the size of fish produced and indicated that farm operations and fish feeding contributed the most to environmental impacts. The PCA method distinguished three groups via their technical indicators, with non-significant differences among the groups in environmental impacts. However, environmental indicators showed strong links with technical and economic indicators. In conclusion, bootstrapped PCA offers the ability to assess groups of trout production system when the sample size is too small and provides more conservative results by considering uncertainty. Future studies should focus on providing reliable data to reduce uncertainty. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nguyen T.T.H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Nguyen T.T.H.,Agrocampus Ouest | Bouvarel I.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Ponchant P.,ITAVI | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2012

With the aim of reducing the environmental impacts of poultry feed, a database of the impacts of feed components destined for formulation was constructed using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. We used linear programming to create least cost feed formulas for fast-growing broiler (FGB), slow-growing broiler (SGB, i.e. quality label), laying hen and for three contrasting feed-cost situations (January 2006, December 2007 and March 2009). We focused on Eutrophication Potential (EP, a regional impact) and Climate Change (CC, a global impact) which were constraints to formulate low-impact poultry feed. The effects of using these constraints on feed cost and the use of feed components were investigated for a feed production plant in Bretagne (western France). Environmental impacts of poultry feed increased with the energy and protein content of the formula and were affected by the relative costs of feed components. FGB formulas had the highest impacts, followed by formulas for SGB and laying hens. The search for a minimum level of EP and CC of the formula decreased its impacts by 1-8% and by 1-12% respectively, and increased its cost by 2-8%, depending on the type of feed and the feed-cost situation. Impact reduction was obtained by partial substitution of soybean meal and cereals by rapeseed meal, grain legumes and co-products (wheat bran, gluten). Furthermore, 70% of the potential reduction of the EP and CC impacts could be obtained at a modest (0.5-4%) increase in the cost of the formulas. Some other ways to reduce feed impacts were explored, such as taking into account the geographic origin of maize crops and adopting a modified regulatory constraint for SGB formulas. It is important to continue this study by taking into account the whole life cycle of poultry production. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PubMed | University of Poitiers, ITAVI and European University of Brittany
Type: | Journal: Veterinary microbiology | Year: 2015

The application of manure may result in contamination of the environment with antimicrobials, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, resistance genes and plasmids. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the administration of colistin and of manure management on (i) the presence of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and (ii) the prevalence of various antimicrobial resistance genes in feces and in composted or stored manure. One flock of chickens was treated with colistin at the recommended dosage and a second flock was kept as an untreated control. Samples of feces, litter and stored or composted manure from both flocks were collected for isolation and determination of the colistin-susceptibility of E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa and quantification of genes coding for resistance to different antimicrobials. The persistence of plasmids in stored or composted manure from colistin-treated broilers was also evaluated by plasmid capturing experiments. Results revealed that colistin administration to chickens had no apparent impact on the antimicrobial resistance of the dominant Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa populations in the chicken gut. Composting stimulated an apparently limited decrease in genes coding for resistance to different antimicrobial families. Importantly, it was shown that even after six weeks of composting or storage, plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance genes could still be transferred to a recipient E. coli. In conclusion, composting is insufficient to completely eliminate the risk of spreading antimicrobial resistance through chicken manure.

Jan S.,Agrocampus Ouest | Brunet N.,Agrocampus Ouest | Techer C.,Agrocampus Ouest | Le Marechal C.,Agrocampus Ouest | And 7 more authors.
Food Microbiology | Year: 2011

The aim of the present study was (i) to type, by genotypic and phenotypic methods, a collection of psychrotrophic bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group collected in a farm and in 6 egg breaking industries during a period covering a warm and a cold season, and (ii) to characterize the egg product spoilage (growth in liquid whole egg) and the sanitary risk potential (cytotoxic activity on Caco-2 cells and adhesion on stainless steel) of each isolate of the collection. The investigation of specific psychrotrophic and mesophilic signatures together with the study of ability to grow at 6°C and/or at 43°C on optimal agar medium allowed highlighting twelve profiles, the major one corresponding to the species Bacillus weihenstephanensis (46.2% of the collection). The diversity of the profiles depended on the season and on the origin of the isolates. In terms of food spoilage, all the isolates were able to grow at the same level in liquid whole egg and in optimal medium, even at low temperature. Under the same conditions, the cytotoxic activity depended on the isolate, the medium and the temperature. At 10°C, no isolate was cytotoxic at 10°C in liquid whole egg and only one, belonging to the Bacillus weihenstephansensis species, in the optimal medium. All the isolates were able to adhere on stainless steel at various levels, from 2.6±0.2log cfu/cm 2 to 4.9±0.1log cfu/cm 2. A large majority (80.8%) was strongly adhering and could lead to the formation of biofilms in industrial equipments. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | ITAVI and European University of Brittany
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Poultry science | Year: 2016

Research was carried out to determine the effectiveness of 4 hatching eggs disinfection processes (i.e., disinfecting products and administration method) using a multi-pronged approach assessing the reduction of microbial eggshell contamination, the effects on worker exposure, hatching results and broiler performance, and, finally, suitability for use in commercial hatcheries. The 4 disinfection processes were: sodium dichlorocyanurate (DC) by thermonebulization, hydrogen peroxide 6% by nebulization (HP6), electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) by fogging, and hydrogen peroxide 30% vapor (HP30). In order to meet commercial hatchery conditions, the tested products were applied in an experimental hatchery by aerial disinfection in a dedicated room, not sprayed directly onto the eggs. Compared to the untreated control group, eggshell microbial load was significantly decreased by over 1 log10 cfu per egg in groups DC and HP30. These results were confirmed during a second experiment. In addition, these 2 products comply with legal requirements on worker exposure. Fertility and hatching results were significantly higher in group HP30 than in group DC, with no impact on chick quality and subsequent broiler performance. Under these study conditions, the disinfection process (i.e., administration of the product, contact with the eggs and aeration) lasted 65min in group DC vs. 135min in group HP30. When considering commercial hatchery conditions, this difference in application time confers a clear advantage on the DC process. Moreover, the investment required for HP30 is much higher than for DC. Overall, HP30 presented a clear advantage for hatching results whereas DC is a relatively more practical and less expensive disinfection process. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of hydrogen peroxide vapor as an egg disinfection process. Further research is needed to confirm the results of this study under commercial hatchery conditions.

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