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Nouzilly, France

Travel A.,ITAVI | Nys Y.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Lopes E.,ITAVI
Productions Animales

Egg quality is greatly influenced by hen physiology, including age, moult and by environmental conditions (temperature, lighting cycle and rearing system). Egg weight increases with hen age, partly due to the increased yolk proportion. Eggshell quality and functional properties of eggs are progressively impaired with hen age. Moult restores, for a shorter production cycle, the progressive degradation in egg production and quality observed at the end of the laying period. High ambient temperature (> 30°C) elicits in hens changes in acido-basic balance and in feed consumption. These changes reduce egg production, egg weight and eggshell strength. Lighting programs applied during the rearing and production periods of hens influence egg production. Ahemeral (> 24 h) and symmetrical cycle programs increase egg weight and eggshell thickness but recent EU directives banned their use. The production system has limited and inconsistent effects on sensorial, nutritional or functional properties of eggs. Furnished cages initially resulted in higher percentages of downgraded eggs but progressive improvements in cage design, of equipments distribution and changes in hen group size allow similar performance to conventional cages if hens are beak trimmed. Source

Jez C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Beaumont C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Magdelaine P.,ITAVI
Productions Animales

For about ten years, the French poultry sector has faced both competition from new poultry-exporting countries and growing societal concerns about animal welfare, food safety, and environmental impact of production systems. As such, while world poultry-meat production increased nearly 4% per year during that period, it decreased by 2.3% per year in France, making poultry farmers, public and other private stakeholders worried about the future of poultry farming. To help French stakeholders design their strategies for the future, a technical institute (ITAVI) and a research institute (INRA) conducted a scenario-building exercise. Based on the interviews of stakeholders and an 18 month series of discussions with a Panel of poultry experts, four future scenarios were developed. They go beyond simply extending current trends by taking into account uncertainties such as potential shifts in European policies and regulations, consumer attitudes, and stakeholder strategies. Levers of action were identified by the exploration of different possible futures for poultry in 2025. These strategic options concern the stakeholders' strategies, public policy and research. Although no scenario envisages strong production growth by 2025, all, however, underline the importance of multidisciplinary research to characterize the quality and sustainability of production, and, in turn, to improve competitiveness. Source

Jlali M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Gigaud V.,ITAVI | Metayer-Coustard S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Sellier N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science

The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of 2 isoenergetic growing diets with different CP (17 vs. 23%) on the performance and breast meat quality of 2 lines of chicken divergently selected for abdominal fatness [i.e., fat and lean (LL) lines]. Growth performance, breast and abdominal fat yields, breast meat quality parameters (pH, color, drip loss), and muscle glycogen storage at death were measured. Increased dietary CP resulted in increased BW, increased breast meat yield, and reduced abdominal fatness at slaughter regardless of genotype (P < 0.001). By contrast, dietary CP affected glycogen storage and the related meat quality parameters only in the LL chickens. Giving LL chickens the low-CP diet led to reduced concentration of muscle glycogen (P < 0.01), and as a result, breast meat with a higher (P < 0.001) ultimate pH, decreased (P < 0.001) lightness, and reduced (P < 0.001) drip loss during storage. The decreased muscle glycogen content observed in LL receiving the low-CP diet compared with the high-CP diet occurred concomitantly with greater phosphorylation amount for the α-catalytic subunit of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and glycogen synthase. This was consistent with the reduced muscle glycogen content observed in LL fed the low-CP diet because adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase inhibits glycogen synthesis through its action on glycogen synthase. Our results demonstrated that nutrition is an effective means of modulating breast meat properties in the chicken. The results also highlighted the need to take into account interaction with the genetic background of the animal to select nutritional strategies to improve meat quality traits in poultry. © 2012 American Society of Animal Science. Source

Jan S.,Agrocampus Ouest | Brunet N.,Agrocampus Ouest | Techer C.,Agrocampus Ouest | Le Marechal C.,Agrocampus Ouest | And 7 more authors.
Food Microbiology

The aim of the present study was (i) to type, by genotypic and phenotypic methods, a collection of psychrotrophic bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group collected in a farm and in 6 egg breaking industries during a period covering a warm and a cold season, and (ii) to characterize the egg product spoilage (growth in liquid whole egg) and the sanitary risk potential (cytotoxic activity on Caco-2 cells and adhesion on stainless steel) of each isolate of the collection. The investigation of specific psychrotrophic and mesophilic signatures together with the study of ability to grow at 6°C and/or at 43°C on optimal agar medium allowed highlighting twelve profiles, the major one corresponding to the species Bacillus weihenstephanensis (46.2% of the collection). The diversity of the profiles depended on the season and on the origin of the isolates. In terms of food spoilage, all the isolates were able to grow at the same level in liquid whole egg and in optimal medium, even at low temperature. Under the same conditions, the cytotoxic activity depended on the isolate, the medium and the temperature. At 10°C, no isolate was cytotoxic at 10°C in liquid whole egg and only one, belonging to the Bacillus weihenstephansensis species, in the optimal medium. All the isolates were able to adhere on stainless steel at various levels, from 2.6±0.2log cfu/cm 2 to 4.9±0.1log cfu/cm 2. A large majority (80.8%) was strongly adhering and could lead to the formation of biofilms in industrial equipments. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Fournier A.,University of Lorraine | Feidt C.,University of Lorraine | Marchand P.,National School of Engineering in Agricultural and Food Industries | Venisseau A.,National School of Engineering in Agricultural and Food Industries | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research

Introduction: High concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) sometimes recorded in free-range hens' eggs are thought to be due to soil ingestion. Of the three stereoisomers of HBCD (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD), γ-HBCD is the main component in the commercial mixture, as well as in environmental matrices, whereas the isomer profile is α-dominated in biota. In fish and in mammals, this shift is thought to be due to a rapid elimination of γ-HBCD and to its bioisomerization to the more persistent α-HBCD. The aim of the current controlled study was to better understand the fate of ingested HBCD in laying hens. The isomer profile in soil being γ-dominated, excretion kinetics of γ-HBCD into egg yolk, and accumulation in liver and in abdominal fat were investigated. Materials and methods: Forty-eight laying hens were individually housed and fed with a spiked diet containing 1. 1-ng γ-HBCD per gram for 21 days and with a clean diet for the following 18 days. Hens were sequentially slaughtered throughout the 39-day experiment. α-, β-, and γ-HBCD were analyzed in egg yolk, in abdominal fat, and in liver by LC-MS/MS. α- and γ-HBCD were quantified in the three tissues, while β-HBCD was never quantified. Results and conclusion: Kinetics of the two isomers suggests that γ-HBCD is rapidly biotransformed and eliminated, and partly isomerized into the more persistent α-HBCD. Carry-over rate of ingested γ-HBCD to egg yolk was estimated at 1. 2%. Estimated half-lives of γ-HBCD in egg yolk, in abdominal fat, and in liver were 2. 9, 13, and 0. 41 days, respectively. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

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