Camana F.,Italian State Police
Forensic Science International | Year: 2013
A complete procedure for identifying the area of convergence of blood drops originated from a single static source is presented. Both for bloodstains lying on a horizontal and on a vertical plane a complete study is developed, based on error analysis and on an opportunely defined joint probability density for the orientation of the horizontal projections of the trajectories of the drops. The method generates a probabilistic map for the area of convergence, directly linking the angles of impact, and their uncertainties, to the projection on the ground of the point of origin. One of the objectives consists in providing a statistical definition of area of convergence, extending to this topic the mathematical accuracy of the calculation of the angle of impact in bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA). © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Di Lorenzo L.,University of Bari |
Borraccia V.,Italian State Police |
Marisa C.,University of Bari |
Mantineo G.A.,Italian State Police |
And 3 more authors.
Medicina del Lavoro | Year: 2010
Background: Several studies evaluated exposure to lead in relatively small groups of firearms instructors and shooters, mainly operating at indoor ranges. Objective: To assess the levels of lead exposure in a large sample of firearms instructors of the Italian State Police (SP) operating at either indoor or outdoor ranges. Methods: A crosssectional study was conducted in firearms instructors working in indoor (No. 188) and outdoor (No. 188) ranges compared with 170 food plant workers. The personal and work characteristics and current blood lead (Pb-B) levels were evaluated. The concentrations of environmental lead (Pb-E) were measured using personal samplers in 6 indoor and 6 outdoor firing ranges. Results: The Pb-B levels in the two groups of firearms instructors were well below the ACGIH BEI, but significantly higher than in food plant workers. In the entire study sample the Pb-B level was seen to be influenced by age and job group. An excess risk of having Pb-B >100 μg/l was found in indoor range instructors and in those with greater job seniority. Pb-E <25 μg/m3 was measured in all the firing ranges examined. Discussion: The low Pb-B and Pb-E levels assessed are the result of primary and secondary prevention interventions carried out over the years by the Italian State Police. The current Pb-B levels also seemed to be poorly influenced by higher past environmentaland/or occupational lead exposure. In fact a certain number of firearms instructors, mainly operating at indoor ranges and with greater job seniority, had Pb-B levels consistent with occupational exposure to lead. Environmental and biological monitoring of lead exposure and specific health surveillance are therefore still necessary in this job group to prevent possible adverse health effects of lead even at low doses.