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Trevisi R.,Italian National Workers Compensation Authority INAIL | Nuccetelli C.,Italian Institute of Technology | Risica S.,Italian Institute of Technology
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

Until now various methods have been developed in several countries to evaluate and classify building materials on the basis of their natural radioactivity. Some of them also account for the contribution of radon to the annual effective dose. In this paper the authors review these methods and apply some of them to the contents of a database of natural radioactivity of building materials in the European Union, that was established by the authors. Based on the activity concentration index introduced by the EC Radiation Protection 112 guidance, IRP112, a new index is also proposed, that accounts for the radon contribution to the effective dose indoors. The results obtained with different indexes are compared in order to evaluate the impact of the new Basic Safety Standards Directive implementation in the EU Member States, particularly in Countries where radioactivity in building materials is already regulated. Moreover, some non EU screening tools were considered to provide suggestions for possible future improvements of the EC IRP112. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Nuccetelli C.,Italian Institute of Technology | Risica S.,Italian Institute of Technology | Dalessandro M.,National Research Council Italy | Trevisi R.,Italian National Workers Compensation Authority INAIL
Journal of Radiological Protection | Year: 2012

Using a wide database collected in the last 10years, the authors have calculated the activity concentration index I for many building materials in the European Union. Suggested by a European technical guidance document, the index I has recently been adopted as a screening tool in the proposal for the new Euratom basic safety standards directive. The paper analyses the possible implications of the choice of different parameters for the computation of index I, i.e.background to be subtracted, dose criteria, etc. With the collected data an independent assessment of gamma doses was also made with an ISS room model, choosing reasonable hypotheses on the use of materials. The results of the two approaches, i.e.index I and a room model, were compared. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Mattei E.,Italian Institute of Technology | Censi F.,Italian Institute of Technology | Triventi M.,Italian Institute of Technology | Mancini M.,Third University of Rome | And 5 more authors.
Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS | Year: 2015

The static magnetic field generated by MRI systems is highly non-homogenous and rapidly decreases when moving away from the bore of the scanner. Consequently, the movement around the MRI scanner is equivalent to an exposure to a time-varying magnetic field at very low frequency (few Hz). For patients with an implanted cardiac stimulators, such as an implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD), the movements inside the MRI environment may thus induce voltages on the loop formed by the leads of the device, with the potential to affect the behavior of the stimulator. In particular, the ICD's detection algorithms may be affected by the induced voltage and may cause inappropriate sensing, arrhythmia detections, and eventually inappropriate ICD therapy. © 2015 IEEE. Source


Magnani C.,University of Eastern Piedmont and Piemonte | Magnani C.,University of Turin | Bianchi C.,Center for the Study of Environmental Cancer | Chellini E.,Unit of Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology. ISPO | And 18 more authors.
Medicina del Lavoro | Year: 2015

The III Italian Consensus Conference on Pleural Mesothelioma (MM) convened on January 29th 2015. This report presents the conclusions of the 'Epidemiology, Public Health and Occupational Medicine' section. MM incidence in 2011 in Italy was 3.64 per 100,000 person/years in men and 1.32 in women. Incidence trends are starting to level off. Ten percent of cases are due to non-occupational exposure. Incidence among women is very high in Italy, because of both non-occupational and occupational exposure. The removal of asbestos in place is proceeding slowly, with remaining exposure. Recent literature confirms the causal role of chrysotile. Fibrous fluoro-edenite was classified as carcinogenic by IARC (Group 1) on the basis of MM data. A specific type (MWCNT-7) of Carbon Nanotubes was classified 2B. For pleural MM, after about 45 years since first exposure, the incidence trend slowed down; with more studies needed. Cumulative exposure is a proxy of the relevant exposure, but does not allow to distinguish if duration or intensity may possibly play a prominent role, neither to evaluate the temporal sequence of exposures. Studies showed that duration and intensity are independent determinants of MM. Blood related MM are less than 2.5%. The role of BAP1 germline mutations is limited to the BAP1 cancer syndrome, but negligible for sporadic cases. Correct MM diagnosis is baseline; guidelines agree on the importance of the tumor gross appearance and of the hematoxylin-eosin-based histology. Immunohistochemical markers contribute to diagnostic confirmation: the selection depends on morphology, location, and differential diagnosis. The WG suggested that 1) General Cancer Registries and ReNaM Regional Operational Centres (COR) interact and systematically compare MM cases; 2) ReNaM should report results presenting the diagnostic certainty codes and the diagnostic basis, separately; 3) General Cancer Registries and COR should interact with pathologists to assure the up-To-date methodology; 4) Necroscopy should be practiced for validation. Expert referral centres could contribute to the definition of uncertain cases. Health surveillance should aim to all asbestos effects. No diagnostic test is recommended for MM screening. Health surveillance should provide information on risks, medical perspective, and smoking cessation. The economic burden associated to MM was estimated in 250,000 Euro per case. Source


Masullo M.,The Second University of Naples | Lenzuni P.,Florence Research Unit | Maffei L.,The Second University of Naples | Nataletti P.,Italian National Workers Compensation Authority INAIL | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene | Year: 2016

Dosimetric measurements carried out on basketball referees have shown that whistles not only generate very high peak sound pressure levels, but also play a relevant role in determining the overall exposure to noise of the exposed subjects. Because of the peculiar geometry determined by the mutual positions of the whistle, the microphone, and the ear, experimental data cannot be directly compared with existing occupational noise exposure and/or action limits.In this article, an original methodology, which allows experimental results to be reliably compared with the aforementioned limits, is presented. The methodology is based on the use of two correction factors to compensate the effects of the position of the dosimeter microphone (fR) and of the sound source (fS). Correction factors were calculated by means of laboratory measurements for two models of whistles (Fox 40 Classic and Fox 40 Sonik) and for two head orientations (frontal and oblique).Results sho w that for peak sound pressure levels the values of fR and fS, are in the range -8.3 to -4.6 dB and -6.0 to -1.7 dB, respectively. If one considers the Sound Exposure Levels (SEL) of whistle events, the same correction factors are in the range of -8.9 to -5.3 dB and -5.4 to -1.5 dB, respectively.The application of these correction factors shows that the corrected weekly noise exposure level for referees is 80.6 dB(A), which is slightly in excess of the lower action limit of the 2003/10/EC directive, and a few dB below the Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The corrected largest peak sound pressure level is 134.7 dB(C) which is comparable to the lower action limit of the 2003/10/EC directive, but again substantially lower than the ceiling limit of 140 dB(A) set by NIOSH. © 2016 JOEH, LLC. Source

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