Italian National Workers Compensation Authority INAIL

Rome, Italy

Italian National Workers Compensation Authority INAIL

Rome, Italy
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Nuccetelli C.,National Institute of Health | Pontikes Y.,Catholic University of Leuven | Leonardi F.,Italian National Workers Compensation Authority INAIL | Trevisi R.,Italian National Workers Compensation Authority INAIL
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2015

The goal of this paper is twofold, that is, (a) to provide an overview of the radiometric content of residues and by-products used in building material production; (b) to evaluate the radiological impact of building products containing these materials, by using the European Union Activity concentration Index I and the computational ISS room model. To achieve the above, coal ash, blast furnace slag, phosphogypsum and bauxite residues are assessed with data from EU countries and industries worldwide. In terms of radiological assessment, the ISS room model is employed as a computational tool, providing an accurate and specific estimate of the contribution of building materials to the indoor dose. As a result, the work herein aspires to provide the framework based upon a residue will be evaluated as a candidate secondary resource with respect to its radiological content. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Nuccetelli C.,National Institute of Health | Trevisi R.,Italian National Workers Compensation Authority INAIL | Leonardi F.,Italian National Workers Compensation Authority INAIL | Ampollini M.,National Institute of Health | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2016

Orvieto (Italy) has a large network of underground tunnels quarried to extract tuff and pozzolana by Etruscans and Romans. One of these tunnels was chosen as natural laboratory to compare different radiation measurement and dose assessment methods. Indeed, tuff and pozzolana are very rich in natural radioactivity and are interesting from the radiation protection point of view since they are still used as building materials. In order to characterize this site an in situ experimental procedure was followed. It consisted in measurements carried out with different instruments: two portable gamma ray spectrometers, two gamma dose rate meters, two radon monitors and one two channel working level monitor. Samples of tuff and pozzolana stones were also collected to be measured with gamma spectrometry in laboratory. Due to the high content of 238U, 232Th (more than 200 Bq kg-1 for both radionuclides) and 40K (more than 2000 Bq kg-1) of tuff and pozzolana, elevated levels of exposure to natural radioactivity were found: indeed, with different instruments and approach, a gamma dose rate of about 1 μGy h-1 and an average radon concentration of about 10,000 Bq m-3, with a Potential Alpha Energy Concentration (PAEC) of 288 MeV cm-3, were measured. The radiological characteristics of Orvieto underground quarry make it a perfect site for "in field" intercomparisons of different measurement and dose assessment methods. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Italian National Workers Compensation Authority INAIL, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, National Institute of Health and ENEA
Type: | Journal: Journal of environmental radioactivity | Year: 2016

Orvieto (Italy) has a large network of underground tunnels quarried to extract tuff and pozzolana by Etruscans and Romans. One of these tunnels was chosen as natural laboratory to compare different radiation measurement and dose assessment methods. Indeed, tuff and pozzolana are very rich in natural radioactivity and are interesting from the radiation protection point of view since they are still used as building materials. In order to characterize this site an in situ experimental procedure was followed. It consisted in measurements carried out with different instruments: two portable gamma ray spectrometers, two gamma dose rate meters, two radon monitors and one two channel working level monitor. Samples of tuff and pozzolana stones were also collected to be measured with gamma spectrometry in laboratory. Due to the high content of


PubMed | Italian National Workers Compensation Authority INAIL, b Florence Research Unit and The Second University of Naples
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene | Year: 2016

Dosimetric measurements carried out on basketball referees have shown that whistles not only generate very high peak sound pressure levels, but also play a relevant role in determining the overall exposure to noise of the exposed subjects. Because of the peculiar geometry determined by the mutual positions of the whistle, the microphone, and the ear, experimental data cannot be directly compared with existing occupational noise exposure and/or action limits. In this article, an original methodology, which allows experimental results to be reliably compared with the aforementioned limits, is presented. The methodology is based on the use of two correction factors to compensate the effects of the position of the dosimeter microphone (fR) and of the sound source (fS). Correction factors were calculated by means of laboratory measurements for two models of whistles (Fox 40 Classic and Fox 40 Sonik) and for two head orientations (frontal and oblique).Results sho w that for peak sound pressure levels the values of fR and fS, are in the range -8.3 to -4.6dB and -6.0 to -1.7dB, respectively. If one considers the Sound Exposure Levels (SEL) of whistle events, the same correction factors are in the range of -8.9 to -5.3dB and -5.4 to -1.5dB, respectively. The application of these correction factors shows that the corrected weekly noise exposure level for referees is 80.6dB(A), which is slightly in excess of the lower action limit of the 2003/10/EC directive, and a few dB below the Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The corrected largest peak sound pressure level is 134.7dB(C) which is comparable to the lower action limit of the 2003/10/EC directive, but again substantially lower than the ceiling limit of 140dB(A) set by NIOSH.


Trevisi R.,Italian National Workers Compensation Authority INAIL | Risica S.,National Institute Of Health Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | D'Alessandro M.,Italian National Workers Compensation Authority INAIL | Paradiso D.,Italian National Workers Compensation Authority INAIL | Nuccetelli C.,National Institute Of Health Instituto Superiore Of Sanita
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2012

The authors set up a database of activity concentration measurements of natural radionuclides ( 226Ra, 232Th and 40K) in building material. It contains about 10,000 samples of both bulk material (bricks, concrete, cement, natural- and phosphogypsum, sedimentary and igneous bulk stones) and superficial material (igneous and metamorphic stones) used in the construction industry in most European Union Member States. The database allowed the authors to calculate the activity concentration index I - suggested by a European technical guidance document and recently used as a basis for elaborating the draft Euratom Basic Safety Standards Directive - for bricks, concrete and phosphogypsum used in the European Union. Moreover, the percentage could be assessed of materials possibly subject to restrictions, if either of the two dose criteria proposed by the technical guidance were to be adopted. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Trevisi R.,Italian National Workers Compensation Authority INAIL | Nuccetelli C.,Italian Institute of Technology | Risica S.,Italian Institute of Technology
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

Until now various methods have been developed in several countries to evaluate and classify building materials on the basis of their natural radioactivity. Some of them also account for the contribution of radon to the annual effective dose. In this paper the authors review these methods and apply some of them to the contents of a database of natural radioactivity of building materials in the European Union, that was established by the authors. Based on the activity concentration index introduced by the EC Radiation Protection 112 guidance, IRP112, a new index is also proposed, that accounts for the radon contribution to the effective dose indoors. The results obtained with different indexes are compared in order to evaluate the impact of the new Basic Safety Standards Directive implementation in the EU Member States, particularly in Countries where radioactivity in building materials is already regulated. Moreover, some non EU screening tools were considered to provide suggestions for possible future improvements of the EC IRP112. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Nuccetelli C.,Italian Institute of Technology | Risica S.,Italian Institute of Technology | Dalessandro M.,National Research Council Italy | Trevisi R.,Italian National Workers Compensation Authority INAIL
Journal of Radiological Protection | Year: 2012

Using a wide database collected in the last 10years, the authors have calculated the activity concentration index I for many building materials in the European Union. Suggested by a European technical guidance document, the index I has recently been adopted as a screening tool in the proposal for the new Euratom basic safety standards directive. The paper analyses the possible implications of the choice of different parameters for the computation of index I, i.e.background to be subtracted, dose criteria, etc. With the collected data an independent assessment of gamma doses was also made with an ISS room model, choosing reasonable hypotheses on the use of materials. The results of the two approaches, i.e.index I and a room model, were compared. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Binazzi A.,Italian National Workers Compensation Authority INAIL | Ferrante P.,Italian National Workers Compensation Authority INAIL | Marinaccio A.,Italian National Workers Compensation Authority INAIL
BMC Cancer | Year: 2015

Background: Sinonasal cancer (SNC) has been related to occupational exposures, but the relative risk associated to specific jobs and/or carcinogen exposures other than wood and leather dust is generally based on small or inadequate sample sizes and the range of observed estimates is large. This paper is aimed at investigating such relationship through a systematic review of the literature followed by a meta-analysis of studies meeting specific inclusion criteria. Methods: Systematic search was made with PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus engines using related keywords. Occupational exposures include wood and leather dust, formaldehyde, nickel and chromium compounds, textile industry, farming and construction. Meta-analysis of published studies after 1985 with a case-control or cohort design was performed, firstly using the fixed-effect model. Heterogeneity was assessed with the Q statistical test and quantified by the I2 index. When the heterogeneity hypothesis appeared relevant, the random-effect model was chosen. Sources of heterogeneity were explored using subgroup analyses. Results: Out of 63 reviewed articles, 28 (11 cohort, 17 case-control) were used in the meta-analysis. Heterogeneity among studies was observed and random-effects models were used. Exposure to wood dust results associated with SNC (RRpooled=5.91, 95% CI: 4.31-8.11 for the case-control studies and 1.61, 95% CI: 1.10-2.37 for the cohort studies), as well as to leather dust (11.89, 95% CI: 7.69-18.36). The strongest associations are with adenocarcinomas (29.43, 95% CI: 16.46-52.61 and 35.26, 95% CI: 20.62-60.28 respectively). An increased risk of SNC for exposures to formaldehyde (1.68, 95% CI: 1.37-2.06 for the case control and 1.09, 95% CI: 0.66-1.79 for the cohort studies), textile industry (2.03, 95% CI: 1.47-2.8), construction (1.62, 95% CI: 1.11-2.36) and nickel and chromium compounds (18.0, 95% CI: 14.55-22.27) was found. Subset analyses identified several sources of heterogeneity and an exposure-response relationship was suggested for wood dust (p=0.001). Conclusions: By confirming the strength of association between occupational exposure to causal carcinogens and SNC risk, our results may provide indications to the occupational etiology of SNC (not only wood and leather dusts). Future studies could be focused on specific occupational groups to confirm causative agents and to define appropriate preventive measures. © Binazzi et al.


Masullo M.,The Second University of Naples | Lenzuni P.,Florence Research Unit | Maffei L.,The Second University of Naples | Nataletti P.,Italian National Workers Compensation Authority INAIL | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene | Year: 2016

Dosimetric measurements carried out on basketball referees have shown that whistles not only generate very high peak sound pressure levels, but also play a relevant role in determining the overall exposure to noise of the exposed subjects. Because of the peculiar geometry determined by the mutual positions of the whistle, the microphone, and the ear, experimental data cannot be directly compared with existing occupational noise exposure and/or action limits.In this article, an original methodology, which allows experimental results to be reliably compared with the aforementioned limits, is presented. The methodology is based on the use of two correction factors to compensate the effects of the position of the dosimeter microphone (fR) and of the sound source (fS). Correction factors were calculated by means of laboratory measurements for two models of whistles (Fox 40 Classic and Fox 40 Sonik) and for two head orientations (frontal and oblique).Results sho w that for peak sound pressure levels the values of fR and fS, are in the range -8.3 to -4.6 dB and -6.0 to -1.7 dB, respectively. If one considers the Sound Exposure Levels (SEL) of whistle events, the same correction factors are in the range of -8.9 to -5.3 dB and -5.4 to -1.5 dB, respectively.The application of these correction factors shows that the corrected weekly noise exposure level for referees is 80.6 dB(A), which is slightly in excess of the lower action limit of the 2003/10/EC directive, and a few dB below the Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The corrected largest peak sound pressure level is 134.7 dB(C) which is comparable to the lower action limit of the 2003/10/EC directive, but again substantially lower than the ceiling limit of 140 dB(A) set by NIOSH. © 2016 JOEH, LLC.


PubMed | Italian National Workers Compensation Authority INAIL
Type: | Journal: Journal of environmental radioactivity | Year: 2012

The authors set up a database of activity concentration measurements of natural radionuclides (Ra, Th and K) in building material. It contains about 10,000 samples of both bulk material (bricks, concrete, cement, natural- and phosphogypsum, sedimentary and igneous bulk stones) and superficial material (igneous and metamorphic stones) used in the construction industry in most European Union Member States. The database allowed the authors to calculate the activity concentration index I--suggested by a European technical guidance document and recently used as a basis for elaborating the draft Euratom Basic Safety Standards Directive--for bricks, concrete and phosphogypsum used in the European Union. Moreover, the percentage could be assessed of materials possibly subject to restrictions, if either of the two dose criteria proposed by the technical guidance were to be adopted.

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