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Pugliese F.,Italian National Institute of Statistics | Acerbi A.,University of Bristol | Acerbi A.,TU Eindhoven | Marocco D.,University of Plymouth
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

In this paper we examine the factors contributing to the emergence of leadership in a group, and we explore the relationship between the role of the leader and the behavioural capabilities of other individuals. We use a simulation technique where a group of foraging robots must coordinate to choose between two identical food zones in order to forage collectively. Behavioural and quantitative analysis indicate that a form of leadership emerges, and that groups with a leader are more effective than groups without. Moreover, we show that the most skilled individuals in a group tend to be the ones that assume a leadership role, supporting biological findings. Further analysis reveals the emergence of different "styles" of leadership (active and passive). Copyright: © 2015 Pugliese et al.

Francioni F.M.,Foro Italico University of Rome | Figueiredo A.J.,University of Coimbra | Terribili M.,Italian National Institute of Statistics | Tessitore A.,Foro Italico University of Rome
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2016

This study aimed to observe the intraseasonal stability of anthropometric, technical and functional test results in academy soccer players of different age categories. In total, 103 participants (age range: 7.7–13.4 years) by 5 age categories of the same academy were recruited for this study. Players were submitted to a field-test battery comprising 3 anthropometric measurements (body mass, stature and body mass index), 6 soccer technical tests (to assess the ability of ball control, ball control with the head, pass accuracy, shooting accuracy, dribbling and dribbling with pass) and 3 functional tests (countermovement jump with the hands on the hip, countermovement jump with free hands and 15-m linear sprint) that was administered in 4 test sessions during the same season. Though anthropometric results showed a clear increment in each age category across the season, the fluctuation of technical test results depended on age category and test session. Moreover, a significant increase in the results of functional tests was observed in most of the age categories, in particular, for the assessment of lower power limb. In conclusion, collecting repeated intraseason measurements permits the identification of players’ fluctuations of performance across the season and allows coaches to make frequent adjustments of their programmes. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

This paper explores the possible relationship between Agricultural Productivity (AP) and Land Degradation (LD) in Italy by addressing the importance of socio-environmental conditions on sub-regional scale. Multivariate analyses were carried out in the early 1990s and early 2000s on 784 Local Labour System (LLS) districts exposed to different levels of land vulnerability to degradation. In the early 1990s, AP in northern Italy was positively correlated with labour productivity in agriculture, share of agriculture in total product, and land vulnerability to degradation. During the following years, however, the increase in AP resulted not to be correlated to LD. A reverse pattern was observed in southern Italy, thus suggesting that the growth in AP was accompanied by an increasing level of land vulnerability. Based on these results, specific agro-environmental measures aimed at mitigating LD are discussed.

Bartoloni E.,Italian National Institute of Statistics | Baussola M.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
Economics of Innovation and New Technology | Year: 2015

This paper investigates the role of non-technological innovation on firms' innovation propensity and performance. We note that emphasis on technological innovation alone is misleading, as a firm's decision to undertake technological innovation brings about a more complex and general process which may involve new attitudes regarding organization and market orientation. We analyse the relationship between product and marketing innovation in manufacturing, focusing specifically on the food industry. We propose a bivariate probit model in which product and marketing innovation are estimated taking into account their reciprocal interactions. This enables us to provide more efficient and realistic estimates of a firm's probability of introducing either a new or improved product or a new marketing technique. In addition, the proposed model provides the determinants of such probabilities. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

Damiani G.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Farelli V.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Anselmi A.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Sicuro L.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | And 4 more authors.
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2011

Background: The challenges posed by the rapidly ageing population, and the increased preponderance of disabled people in this group, coupled with the rising level of public expenditure required to service the complex organization of long term care (LTC) delivery are causing increased pressure on LTC systems in Europe. A pan-European survey was carried out to evaluate whether patterns of LTC can be identified across Europe and what are the trends of the countries along them. Methods. An ecological study was conducted on the 27 EU Member States plus Norway and Iceland, referring to the period 2003-2007. Several variables related to organizational features, elderly needs and expenditure were drawn from OECD Health Data and the Eurostat Statistics database and combined using Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). Results: Two global Principal Components were taken into consideration given that their expressed total variance was greater than 60%. They were interpreted according to the higher (more than 0.5) positive or negative correlation coefficients between them and the original variables; thus patterns of LTC were identified. High alignment between old age related expenditure and elderly needs characterizes Nordic and Western European countries, the former also having a higher level of formal care than the latter. Mediterranean as well as Central and South Eastern European countries show lower alignment between old age related expenditure and elderly needs, coupled with a level of provision of formal care that is around or slightly above the average European level. In the dynamic comparison, linear, stable or unclear trends were shown for the studied countries. Conclusions: The analysis carried out is an explorative and descriptive study, which is an attempt to reveal patterns and trends of LTC in Europe, allowing comparisons between countries. It also stimulates further researches with lower aggregated data useful to gain meaningful policy-making evidence. © 2011 Damiani et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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