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Bucci S.,ARPAT Regional Agency for Environmental Protection in Tuscany | Pratesi G.,ARPAT Regional Agency for Environmental Protection in Tuscany | Viti M.L.,ARPAT Regional Agency for Environmental Protection in Tuscany | Pantani M.,ARPAT Regional Agency for Environmental Protection in Tuscany | And 2 more authors.
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2011

Extensive radon surveys have been carried out in many countries only in dwellings, whereas surveys in workplaces are rather sparse and generally restricted to specific workplaces/activities, e.g. schools, spas and caves. Moreover, radon-prone areas are generally defined on the basis of radon surveys in dwellings, while radon regulations use this concept to introduce specific requirements in workplaces in such areas. This approach does not take into account that work activities and workplace characteristics can significantly affect radon concentration. Therefore, an extensive survey on radon in different workplaces have been carried out in a large region of Italy (Tuscany), in order to evaluate radon distribution in workplaces over the whole territory and to identify activities and workplace characteristics affecting radon concentration. The results of this extensive survey are compared with the results of the survey carried out in dwellings in the same period. The workplaces monitored were randomly selected among the main work activities in the region, including both public and industrial buildings. The survey monitored over 3500 rooms in more than 1200 buildings for two consecutive periods of ~6 months. Radon concentration was measured by means of passive nuclear track detectors. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source


Calcagnini G.,ISS Italian National Institute of Health | Mattei E.,ISS Italian National Institute of Health | Censi F.,ISS Italian National Institute of Health | Triventi M.,ISS Italian National Institute of Health | And 3 more authors.
Health Physics | Year: 2011

This paper investigates the electromagnetic compatibility of 45 critical care medical devices (infusion pumps, defibrillators, monitors, lung ventilators, anesthesia machines and external pacemakers) with various types of wireless local area network (WLAN, IEEE 802.11 b/g, 2.45 GHz, 100 mW) adapters. Interference is evaluated by performing ad-hoc tests according to the ANSI C63.18 recommended practice. The behavior of the devices during the tests was monitored using patient simulators/device testers specific for each device class. Electromagnetic interference cases were observed in three of 45 devices at a maximum distance of 5 cm. In two cases the interference caused malfunctions that may have clinical consequences for the patient. The authors' findings show that the use of these wireless local area network adapters can be considered reasonably safe, although interference may occur if they are operated at very close distance (<10 cm) to the medical devices. Copyright © 2011 Health Physics Society. Source

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