Italian National Institute of Health ISS

Rome, Italy

Italian National Institute of Health ISS

Rome, Italy
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Masocco M.,Italian National Institute of Health ISS | Kodra Y.,Italian National Institute of Health ISS | Vichi M.,Italian National Institute of Health ISS | Conti S.,Italian National Institute of Health ISS | And 4 more authors.
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: Persons affected by neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) have a decreased survival, yet information on NF1-associated mortality is limited. Methods/Aim. The National Mortality Database and individual Multiple-Causes-of- Death records were used to estimate NF1-associated mortality in Italy in the period 1995-2006, to compare the distribution of age at death (as a proxy of survival) to that of the general population and to evaluate the relation between NF1 and other medical conditions by determining whether the distribution of underlying causes of NF1-associated deaths differs from that of general population. Results: Of the nearly 6.75 million deaths in the study period, 632 had a diagnosis of NF1, yet for nearly three-fourths of them the underlying cause was not coded as neurofibromatosis. The age distribution showed that NF1-associated deaths also occurred among the elderly, though mortality in early ages was high. The mean age for NF1-associated death was approximately 20 years lower than that for the general population. The gender differential may suggest that women are affected by more severe NF1-related complications, or they may simply reflect a greater tendency for NF1 to be reported on the death certificates of young women. Regarding the relation with other medical conditions, we found an excess, as the underlying cause of death, for malignant neoplasm of connective and other soft tissue and brain, but not for other sites. We also found an excess for obstructive chronic bronchitis and musculoskeletal system diseases among elderly persons. Conclusion: This is the first nationally representative population-based study on NF1-associated mortality in Italy. It stresses the importance of the Multiple-Causes-of-Death Database in providing a more complete picture of mortality for conditions that are frequently not recorded as the underlying cause of death, or to study complex chronic diseases or diseases that have no specific International Classification of Diseases code, such as NF1. It also highlights the usefulness of already available data when a surveillance system is not fully operational. © 2011 Masocco et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Cheli F.,University of Milan | Campagnoli A.,University of Milan | Ventura V.,Molino Casillo S.p.A. | Brera C.,Italian National Institute of Health ISS | And 3 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The aim of this work was to investigate the distributions of deoxynivalenol, cadmium and lead in durum wheat milling fractions from industrial milling plants. The study focused on two milling technologies: conventional milling and debranning before milling. Initial analyses of samples of all raw materials showed contamination levels considerably lower than the limits imposed by the European Commission. Deoxynivalenol, cadmium and lead showed rather similar patterns of distribution. Semolina had lower, although not significant levels of these undesirable substances than unprocessed wheat grain; in contrast, marked concentration factors were found for the contaminants in shorts (middlings) and flour shorts. Debranning technology resulted in higher contamination levels in products intended for animal feed than conventional milling. The difference was statistically significant for deoxynivalenol and lead contamination of the shorts (middlings) fraction. As the outer parts of the kernel are generally considered richer in inorganic elements and moulds, Pearson's correlation was performed to investigate the relationship between the crude fibre contents of the different fractions, adopted as bran marker, and contaminant levels. Positive correlations were found for each of the three contaminants, although the correlation coefficients were not very high, demonstrating that crude fibre likely does not constitute a good marker for describing contaminants repartitioning in milling fractions when the levels of these substances are low. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Masocco M.,Italian National Institute of Health ISS | Pompili M.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Pompili M.,Harvard University | Vanacore N.,Italian National Institute of Health ISS | And 5 more authors.
Psychiatric Quarterly | Year: 2010

Completed suicide is associated with marital status; being unmarried is associated with a higher suicide rate as compared with being married or living with a partner. Moreover, the region of origin may be particularly important when trying to explain major inequalities in suicide rates across a country. Data were obtained from the Italian Database on Mortality, collected by the Italian Census Bureau (ISTAT) and processed by the Italian National Institute of Health-Statistics Unit. The Italian population in the last Italian census (October 2001) was used to estimate age-standardized mortality rates from suicide by marital status (ICD-9 revision: E950-959) and "natural" causes (ICD-9 revision: 0-280; 320-799). Rate Ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using married individuals as a reference. All analyses were conducted separately for men and women for 2000-2002, the most recent years with data available. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare differences by marital status for suicide versus death from natural causes. There are major inequalities in suicide rates in Italy. The North region has the highest suicide rates both for married and non-married individuals. Sardinia Island has the highest male suicide rate in Italy-23.07 per 100,000 per year-compared with the average national male suicide rate of 13.80, a difference which is significantly higher by 67% (RR: 1.67; 95%CI = 1.40-1.99). In contrast, Sardinia has one of the lowest female suicide rates among the Italian regions, close to that of the South and the Center regions. The North-East is the only region where the suicide rate among divorced men is significantly higher than that of married men. In the South, widowers have the highest suicide rate, with a rate 6-times that of married men (RR = 5.66; 95%CI = 4.46-7.18). Major inequalities in suicide rates by region may derive from different socio-cultural backgrounds, confirming the notion that suicide is a multifaceted phenomenon. The results of the present study indicate that suicide prevention must take into account the social and cultural characteristics of different communities. Moreover, these findings support the notion that marital status may play a central role in influencing suicide. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Foglia E.,Carlo Cattaneo University | Restelli U.,Carlo Cattaneo University | Napoletano A.M.,Italian National Institute of Health ISS | Coclite D.,Italian National Institute of Health ISS | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2012

Introduction. Pressure ulcer management represents a growing problem for medical and social health care systems all over the world, particularly in European Union countries where the incidence of pressure ulcers in older persons (> 60 years of age) is predicted to rise. Objectives. The aim of this study was to provide evidence for the lower impact on economic resources of using advanced dressings for the treatment of pressure ulcers with respect to conventional simple dressings. Methods. Two different models of analysis, derived from Activity Based Costing and Health Technology Assessment, were used to measure, over a 30-day period, the direct costs incurred by pressure ulcer treatment for community-residing patients receiving integrated home care. Results. Although the mean cost per home care visit was higher in the advanced dressings patient group than in the simple dressings patient one (€ 22.31 versus € 16.03), analysis of the data revealed that the cost of using advanced dressings was lower due to fewer home care visits (22 versus 11). Conclusion. The results underline the fact that decision-makers need to improve their understanding of the advantages of taking a long-term view with regards to the purchase and use of materials. This could produce considerable savings of resources in addition to improving treatment efficacy for the benefit of patients and the health care system.

PubMed | University of Rome La Sapienza and Italian National Institute of Health ISS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Leukemia research | Year: 2015

The occurrence of secondary hypogammaglobulinemia (SH) after chemo-immunotherapy represents a potential side effect in patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas (iNHL). Few data are available on SH occurring after chemotherapy and/or Rituximab (R). We retrospectively investigated the incidence and the risk factors for SH and infectious complications in patients with iNHL after chemo-immunotherapy. Two hundred and sixty six patients treated between 1993 and 2011 were studied. Patients with a basal hypogammaglobulinemia or a monoclonal component were excluded. The incidence of SH was 2.21000 person-years (95% CI 1.6-2.9). Exposure to Fludarabine-based schedules (Fbs)R was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 18.1 (95% CI: 4.3-77.0). Conversely, exposure to CHOPR or CVPR was not a risk factor (HR 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.8; HR 0.3, 95% CI: 0.08-1.4, respectively). The role of R was studied comparing cohorts differing only for R; no differences were found comparing R-CHOP/R-CVP versus CHOP/CVP (HR 1.07, 95% CI: 0.38-3.05) and R-Fbs versus Fbs (HR 2.07, 95% CI: 0.62-6.99). Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is also a risk factor (HR: 5.2, 95% CI 2.1-13.0). SH patients presented a high risk for pneumonia development (HR 7.07 95% CI: 2.68-18.44). We recommend monitoring of serum immunoglobulins in an attempt to reduce the probability of infection after Fbs or ASCT.

PubMed | University of Insubria, University of California at San Francisco, Italian National Institute of Health ISS and Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases IRCCS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver | Year: 2016

In patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV), recurrence of infection after liver transplant (LT) is universal and associated with worst survival. We present the results of an Italian cohort to compare the 3-year outcome of HCV-Ab-positive and HCV-Ab-negative LT recipients and to assess the potential interaction between HCV-Ab sero-status and other risk factors for LT failure.The study is a multicentre cohort including a sample of liver transplant centres. Participants information was collected at the local level. The best functional form of variables was decided according to the objective methods based on information theory. Association between transplant failure and potential risk factors was assessed in univariate and multivariate Poisson regression model with random intercept.Between June 2007 and May 2009, 1164 LT recipients were enrolled in 16 Italian transplant centres, of them 275 (23.63%) experienced LT failure. Incidence rates of LT failure was 0.32 and 0.23 per 1000 person-days in HCV-Ab-positive and HCV-Ab-negative recipients respectively (P = 0.003). Inferential models according to Akaike information criterion indicated that donor-recipient age difference and donor-recipient sex matching were more informative to predict LT failure than the age and the sex as separate variables. Multivariate analysis provided evidence that HCV-Ab sero-status, time after LT, donor-recipient age difference, donor-recipient sex matching and recipients MELD score were significantly associated with LT failure. Moreover, the effect of HCV-Ab sero-status on LT failure was modified by the simultaneous action of time after LT and donor-recipient age difference. No interaction was found between recipients HCV-Ab sero-status and either recipients MELD or donor-recipient sex matching.In view of the imminent introduction of new anti-HCV therapies, our study provides information to assess which LT recipients should be prioritized for receiving these highly effective, but expensive, new treatments. This is particularly relevant for those clinical settings where healthcare prioritization is endorsed by national authorities.

PubMed | Unit of Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology, University of Genoa, Defence Evaluation and Research Agency, IRCCS AUO San Martino IST Instituto Nazionale Ricerca sul Cancro and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of hygiene and environmental health | Year: 2015

Leukemia/lymphoma cases reported in 2001 among United Nation soldiers or peacekeepers deployed to the Balkans aroused alert on the exposure to depleted uranium. Recent epidemiological studies carried out in different European countries among peacekeepers who served in the Balkans failed to demonstrate a higher than expected risk of all cancers but, mostly due to their limitations in size and follow up time, leave open the debate on health risk of depleted uranium. The aim of SIGNUM (Study of the Genotoxic Impact in Military Units) was to identify potential genotoxic risk associated with the exposure to depleted uranium or other pollutants in the Italian Army military personnel deployed in Iraq.Blood and urine samples were collected before and after the deployment from 981 Italian soldiers operating in Iraq in 2004-2005. As, Cd, Mo, Ni, Pb, U, V, W, and Zr were determined in urine and serum. DNA-adducts, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanine and micronuclei frequency were evaluated in blood lymphocytes. Three different genetic polymorphisms, GSTM1, XRCC1, OGG1 were analyzed.Significant T0-T1 reduction in the total concentration of uranium, increases for Cd, Mo, Ni, Zr, and decreases for As, Pb, W, and V in urine and plasma were observed. Increases in oxidative alterations and in micronuclei frequency, included in the range of values of non-occupationally exposed populations, were observed at the end of the period of employment.Our results did not detect any toxicologically relevant variation of DNA-damage biomarkers related to the deployment in the operational theater.

PubMed | National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani, Direzione Generale Salute Lombardia, Italian National Institute of Health ISS, University of Insubria and Northwestern University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Bacterial infections remain a challenge to solid organ transplantation. Due to the alarming spread of carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria, these organisms have been frequently recognized as cause of severe infections in solid organ transplant recipients.Between 15 May and 30 September 2012 we enrolled 887 solid organ transplant recipients in Italy with the aim to describe the epidemiology of gram negative bacteria spreading, to explore potential risk factors and to assess the effect of early isolation of gram negative bacteria on recipients mortality during the first 90 days after transplantation. During the study period 185 clinical isolates of gram negative bacteria were reported, for an incidence of 2.39 per 1000 recipient-days. Positive cultures for gram negative bacteria occurred early after transplantation (median time 26 days; incidence rate 4.33, 1.67 and 1.14 per 1,000 recipient-days in the first, second and third month after SOT, respectively). Forty-nine of these clinical isolates were due to carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria (26.5%; incidence 0.63 per 1000 recipient-days). Carbapenems resistance was particularly frequent among Klebsiella spp. isolates (49.1%). Recipients with longer hospital stay and those who received either heart or lung graft were at the highest risk of testing positive for any gram negative bacteria. Moreover recipients with longer hospital stay, lung recipients and those admitted to hospital for more than 48h before transplantation had the highest probability to have culture(s) positive for carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria. Forty-four organ recipients died (0.57 per 1000 recipient-days) during the study period. Recipients with at least one positive culture for carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria had a 10.23-fold higher mortality rate than those who did not.The isolation of gram-negative bacteria is most frequent among recipient with hospital stays >48 hours prior to transplant and in those receiving either heart or lung transplants. Carbapenem-resistant gram negative isolates are associated with significant mortality.

PubMed | Italian National Institute of Health ISS, National Institute for Health and National Institute of Statistics ISTAT
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Due to their increased vulnerability, immigrants are considered a priority group for communicable disease prevention and control in Europe. This study aims to compare influenza vaccination coverage (IVC) between regular immigrants and Italian citizens at risk for its complications and evaluate factors affecting differences.Based on data collected by the National Institute of Statistics during a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted in Italy in 2012-2013, we analysed information on 42,048 adult residents ( 18 years) at risk for influenza-related complications and with free access to vaccination (elderly residents 65 years and residents with specific chronic diseases). We compared IVC between 885 regular immigrants and 41,163 Italian citizens using log-binomial models and stratifying immigrants by area of origin and length of stay in Italy (recent: < 10 years; long-term: 10 years).IVC among all immigrants was 16.9% compared to 40.2% among Italian citizens (vaccination coverage ratio (VCR) = 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.49). Adjusting for sex, age and area of residence, this difference was greatly reduced but remained statistically significant (VCR = 0.71, 95 CI: 0.61-0.81). Further adjustment for socio-economic factors (education, occupation, family composition and economic status) and a composite indicator of health-services utilization did not affect the difference (VCR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.68-0.90). However, after adjustments, only long-term immigrants from Africa (VCR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.28-0.85) and recent immigrants (VCR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.43-0.78) showed a significantly different IVC compared to Italian citizens.Differences in demographic characteristics, socio-economic conditions and health-services utilization explained the reduced IVC in most long-term immigrants compared to Italian citizens. By contrast, these differences did not explain the reduced IVC in long-term immigrants from Africa and recent immigrants. This suggests that IVC in these sub-groups is affected by other informal barriers (e.g., cultural and linguistic) that need to be investigated to promote effective immunization access strategies.

PubMed | University of Padua, G Gaslini Institute, National Research Council Italy, Bambino Gesu Childrens Hospital IRCCS and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association | Year: 2016

High levels of preformed anti-HLA antibodies dramatically diminish renal transplant outcomes. Most desensitization programmes guarantee good intermediate outcomes but quite disappointing long-term prognosis. The search for a fully compatible kidney increases time on the waiting list.In February 2011, a nationwide hyperimmune programme (NHP) was begun in Italy: all available kidneys are primarily proposed to highly sensitized patients with a panel reactive antibody above 80%. In this manuscript, we evaluate the outcome of paediatric patients transplanted with this approach.Twenty-one patients were transplanted. Complete data are available for 20 patients. Mean age at transplantation was 14.5 years [standard deviation (SD) 5.5)]. Mean time on the waiting list was 29.3 months (SD 27.5). Median follow-up was 29.2 months (range: 11.2-59.3). The average number of HLA mismatches in these patients was 2.3 versus 3.7 in 48 standard patients transplanted in the same period (P < 0.001). Only one graft was lost. Two cases of humoral rejection occurred and were successfully treated. No cellular rejection was reported. Median creatinine clearance was 84, 88, 77 and 77 mL/min/1.73 mTransplantation of sensitized patients avoiding prohibited antigens is feasible, at least in a selected cohort of patients. In order to be able to further improve this approach, which in our opinion is very successful, it would be necessary to expand the donor pool, possibly increasing the number of countries participating in the programme. In this series, time on the waiting list did not increase significantly. This allocation policy should ideally lead to an outcome comparable to that expected in standard patients, which is particularly desirable in young patients who have the longest life expectancy. Since long-term results of desensitization programmes are not (yet) convincing, we suggest that these programmes should be reserved for selected cases where compatible organs cannot be found within a reasonable time span.

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