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Lazzaro I.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Moretti A.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production | Giorni P.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Brera C.,Italian National Institute for Health | Battilani P.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
Crop Protection

This study aimed to monitor the main toxigenic fungi in neighbouring organic and conventional maize and wheat fields in Italy in 2010 and 2011. The Fusarium species mainly isolated were: Fusarium poae, sometimes predominant on Fusarium graminearum in wheat, and Fusarium verticillioides competing with Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium subglutinans in maize. The incidence of Fusarium spp. was similar for both conventional (6%) and organic (4%) wheat, but it was influenced by weather conditions. 2010 was the most favourable for Fusarium species, with 10 times the incidence of 2011. Fusarium infection was significantly different between farming systems in maize (20% vs 35% in conventional and organic, respectively), while in 2010 the incidence was significantly higher than in 2011 (43% vs 25%). Aspergillus and Penicillium incidence was not linked to the farming system but to weather conditions, with moderately higher incidence in 2010. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

D'ilio S.,Italian National Institute for Health | Mattei D.,Italian National Institute for Health | Blasi M.F.,Filicudi WildLife Conservation | Alimonti A.,Italian National Institute for Health | Bogialli S.,University of Padua
Marine Pollution Bulletin

Chemical elements and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are globally present in aquatic systems and their potential transfer to loggerhead marine turtles (Caretta caretta) has become a serious threat for their health status. The environmental fate of these xenobiotics may be traced by the analysis of turtles' tissues and blood. Generally, loggerhead turtles exhibited a higher metal load than other turtle species, this could be explained by differences in diet habits being food the main source of exposure. Literature shows that muscle, liver and kidney are most considered for the quantification of chemical elements, while, organic compounds are typically investigated in liver and fat.This paper is an overview of the international studies carried out on the quantification of chemical elements, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorines (OCs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), in tissues, organs and fluids of C. caretta from the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

This protocol was developed to estimate the uncertainty of measurements in the sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of As, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sn and V in human serum by utilizing in-house validation data. The approach is outlined in the Eurachem/Citac Guide and other relevant publications. The results generated were the followings: (i) coefficients of regression >0.9995 over two orders of magnitude of metal concentration; (ii) method quantification limits between 0.05 μg/L (Cr, Mn) and 0.49 μg/L (As); (iii) mean trueness checked against a certified reference material between 95.4% (As) and 107.7% (Ni); (iv) repeatability better than 10.2% over the range 0.1-2.0 μg/L; (v) reproducibility better than 12.0% over the range 0.1-2.0 μg/L; and (vi) expanded uncertainty budget comprised between 14.7% (Mn) and 27.9% (Cr) over the range 0.1-2.0 μg/L. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Ingelido A.M.,Italian National Institute for Health | Marra V.,Italian National Institute for Health | Abballe A.,Italian National Institute for Health | Valentini S.,Italian National Institute for Health | And 5 more authors.

The serum concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were determined in 230 subjects of the Italian general population. Participants were enrolled in 2008 in two Italian towns (Brescia, Northern Italy, and Rome, Central Italy) and belonged to the three age ranges: 20-35. years, 36-50. years, and 51-65. years.PFOS and PFOA were quantified by HPLC interfaced to a mass spectrometer operating in the electrospray negative mode. Data were acquired using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The isotope dilution technique was applied throughout.The median serum concentrations of all participants were 6.31ngg-1 and 3.59ngg-1 for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, and the pertinent 90th percentiles were 12.38 and 6.92.Men had higher concentrations of PFOS and PFOA than women, regardless of age. The differences were statistically significant in the 20-35 and 36-50. years groups, but not in the 51-65 group.An increase of PFOS and PFOA serum concentrations with age was observed. The Median test showed a statistically significant difference (p≪0.01) between the three age groups for both PFOS and PFOA when applied to the entire dataset (males and females). When the test was applied to the groups of males and females separately, a significant difference was observed for females (p≪0.005) but not for males (p>0.1).The observed strong correlation between PFOS and PFOA concentrations suggests same or similar exposure routes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Bocca B.,Italian National Institute for Health | Mattei D.,Italian National Institute for Health | Pino A.,Italian National Institute for Health | Alimonti A.,Italian National Institute for Health
Current Analytical Chemistry

Human biomonitoring results can be used to evaluate prior metals' exposures but the data production must adhere to rigorous scientific standards including validation of the analytical method and calculation of the method's uncertainty. The whole procedure is often perceived as a difficult and time-consuming task. The aim of this paper was to in house validate a sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry-based method and to speed up the calculation of measurement's uncertainty in the monitoring of As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ir, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rh, Sb, Sn, Tl, U, V and W in human blood. The laboratory validation was organized so as to vary the most representative factors (operators, time, materials, instrumental settings, calibrations) that could affect the analytical data. Then, only those sources that significantly affected the final result were considered in the uncertainty estimate, simplifying so the process. Validation data in blood were: linearity, R2 > 0.9992 over two orders of concentration; detection limits between 0.0015 μg L-1 - 1.03 μg L-1; mean trueness on certified reference materials between 91.2%-109.6%; mean recovery on spikes ranging 92%-105%; repeatability from 3.0% to 6.3% and reproducibility from 3.8% to 9.2%. The expanded uncertainty budget derived from two sources (reproducibility and trueness/recovery) was between 11% and 26%. Applying the proposed procedure in future biomonitoring studies for metals' exposure will allow the production of analytical data of high quality and reliability. This is also crucial to correctly interpret the biomonitoring data with respect to statutory limits, reference limits and measures produced by other laboratories. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

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