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Milan, Italy

The European Institute of Oncology is a non-profit comprehensive cancer centre located in Milan, Italy that is active in three areas:ClinicResearchTrainingThe European Institute of Oncology works on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer by developing clinical and scientific research coupled with organisation and management. Wikipedia.

Rescigno M.,Italian National Cancer Institute
Immunological Reviews | Year: 2014

Intestinal epithelial cells are fundamental to maintain barrier integrity and to participate in food degradation and absorption, but they can also decipher signals coming from the outside world and 'educate' the immune system accordingly. In particular, they interact with dendritic cells (DCs) and other intraepithelial immune cells to drive tolerogenic responses under steady state, but they can also release immune mediators to recruit inflammatory cells and to elicit immunity to infectious agents. When these interactions are deregulated, immune disorders can develop. In this review, we discuss some important features of epithelial cells and DCs and their fruitful interactions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Rocco G.,Italian National Cancer Institute
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery | Year: 2012

One-port (uniportal) video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) consists of approaching an intrathoracic target lesion through a sagittal, craniocaudal plane through 1 single-port incision. The use of articulating instruments inserted parallel to the videothoracoscope enables the surgeon to mimic inside the chest the maneuvers that are usually performed during open surgery. Through this VATS approach, several thoracic conditions can be addressed, including lung cancer in selected patients. Unlike conventional, 3-port VATS, the uniportal VATS technique enables the surgeon to bring the operative fulcrum inside the chest when the target lunge lesion is approached through a sagittal plan, thanks to articulating instruments. Uniportal wedge VATS resections of peripheral nodules can help in solving diagnostic dilemmas, be of therapeutic benefit, and provide tissue for biomolecular studies. Copyright © 2012 by The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Source

Rescigno M.,Italian National Cancer Institute
Cellular Microbiology | Year: 2014

Summary: The microbiota colonizes every surface exposed to the external world and in the gut, it plays important roles in physiological functions such as the maturation of the immune system, the degradation of complex food macromolecules and also behaviour. As such, the immune system has developed tools to cohabit with the microbiota, but also to keep it under control. When this control is lost, dysbiosis, i.e. deregulation in bacterial communities, can occur and this can lead to inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, diabetes and autism. For these reasons, the analysis of the microbiota, its interactions with the host and its composition in disease, have been intensively investigated in the last few years. In this review, we summarize the major findings in the interaction of the microbiota with the host immune system. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Natoli G.,Italian National Cancer Institute
Immunity | Year: 2010

Cell differentiation entails early lineage choices leading to the activation, and the subsequent maintenance, of the gene expression program characteristic of each cell type. Alternative lineage choices involve the activation of different regulatory and coding regions of the genome, a process instructed by lineage-determining transcription factors, and at least in part mediated by the deposition of chromatin marks that modify functionality and accessibility of the underlying genome. According to classic epigenetics, subsequent maintenance of chromatin marks across mitoses and in spite of environmental perturbations occurs largely through autonomous and unsupervised mechanisms. However, paradigmatic genetic and biochemical studies in immune system and hematopoietic cells strongly point to the concept that both induction and maintenance of the differentiated state require constant supervision by lineage-determining transcription factors, which may act to globally organize the genome in both the one- and the three-dimensional space. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Santoro F.,Italian National Cancer Institute
Blood | Year: 2013

Aberrant recruitment of histone deacetylases (HDACs) by the oncogenic fusion protein PML-RAR is involved in the pathogenesis of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). PML-RAR, however, is not sufficient to induce disease in mice but requires additional oncogenic lesions during the preleukemic phase. Here, we show that knock-down of Hdac1 and Hdac2 dramatically accelerates leukemogenesis in transgenic preleukemic mice. These events are not restricted to APL because lymphomagenesis driven by deletion of p53 or, to a lesser extent, by c-myc overexpression, was also accelerated by Hdac1 knock-down. In the preleukemic phase of APL, Hdac1 counteracts the activity of PML-RAR in (1) blocking differentiation; (2) impairing genomic stability; and (3) increasing self-renewal in hematopoietic progenitors, as all of these events are affected by the reduction in Hdac1 levels. This led to an expansion of a subpopulation of PML-RAR-expressing cells that is the major source of leukemic stem cells in the full leukemic stage. Remarkably, short-term treatment of preleukemic mice with an HDAC inhibitor accelerated leukemogenesis. In contrast, knock-down of Hdac1 in APL mice led to enhanced survival duration of the leukemic animals. Thus, Hdac1 has a dual role in tumorigenesis: oncosuppressive in the early stages, and oncogenic in established tumor cells. Source

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