Italian Association of Human Milk Banks

Milano, Italy

Italian Association of Human Milk Banks

Milano, Italy
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Bertino E.,University of Turin | Giribaldi M.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production | Baro C.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production | Giancotti V.,University of Turin | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed at evaluating the effect of prolonged refrigeration of fresh human milk (HM) on its fatty acid profile, free fatty acid content, lipase activities, and oxidative status. METHODS: HM from mothers of preterm newborns was collected, pooled, and placed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) refrigerator. Pooled milk was aliquoted and analyzed within 3 hours of collection, and after 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours of storage. The milk samples were analyzed for pH, total and free fatty acid profile, lipase activity at room temperature and at 4 C, lipase activity at room temperature in presence of sodium cholate (bile salt-dependent lipase), total antioxidant capacity, thiobarbituric acid reactive species, malondialdehyde, and conjugated diene concentration. The experiment was replicated in 3 independent trials. RESULTS: Prolonged refrigeration did not affect the fatty acid composition of breast milk, and preserved both its overall oxidative status and the activity of HM lipolytic enzymes. In particular, bile salt-dependent lipase activity, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and medium-chain saturated fatty acid concentrations were unaffected for up to 96 hours of refrigerated storage. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged refrigeration of fresh HM for 96 hours maintained its overall lipid composition. The limited lipolysis during storage should be ascribed to the activity of lipoprotein lipase, responsible for the decrease in pH. Our study demonstrates that infants who receive expressed milk stored for up to 96 hours receive essentially the same supply of fatty acids and active lipases as do infants fed directly at the breast. Copyright © 2013 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.


Coscia A.,University of Turin | Peila C.,University of Turin | Bertino E.,University of Turin | Coppa G.V.,Marche Polytechnic University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVES:: The benefits of human milk for preterm infants are mainly the result of its nutritional characteristics and the presence of biologically active compounds. Among these compounds, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) play an emerging leading role. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, pasteurised donor milk represents an important nutritional alternative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Holder pasteurisation on the concentration of different GAGs in preterm human milk. METHODS:: Milk samples collected from 9 mothers having delivered preterm were divided into 2 parts. One part of each sample was immediately frozen (-80°C), whereas the other part was pasteurised with the Holder method before being frozen at -80°C. Specific analytical procedures were applied to evaluate the amount, composition, and structure of main human milk GAGs. RESULTS:: No significative differences were measured between not-treated and pasteurised samples for total GAGs content, relative percentages of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate, and main parameters related to galactosaminoglycans structure, even if a slight decrease of total GAGs content of ∼18% was observed in treated samples. CONCLUSIONS:: Our results indicate that the Holder pasteurisation does not significatively affect the concentration of the main human milk GAGs. © 2014 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.


Arslanoglu S.,Italian Association of Human Milk Banks
Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents | Year: 2012

A mixture of neutral prebiotic oligosaccharides has been shown to reduce the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergy associated symptoms during the first 2 years of life. To evaluate if this protective effect against allergy lasted beyond the intervention period until 5 y of age. In a prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled fashion, healthy term infants at risk of atopy were fed either a prebiotic-supplemented (0.8 g/100 ml scGOS/lcFOS) or placebo-supplemented (0.8 g/100 ml maltodextrin) hypoallergenic formula during the first 6 mo of life. Following this intervention period, follow-up continued until 5 y of life. The present study evaluated (i) the cumulative incidence of allergic manifestations during 5 y, and (ii) the prevalence of allergic and persistent allergic manifestations at 5 y. Monitored allergic manifestations were AD, recurrent wheezing, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. Ninety-two children (50 in placebo group, 42 in intervention group) completed the 5-y follow-up. The 5-y cumulative incidences of any allergic manifestation and atopic dermatitis were significantly lower in the scGOS/lcFOS group (30.9, 19.1 %, respectively) compared to placebo group (66, 38 %, respectively) (p< 0.01 and< 0.05). Children in the scGOS/lcFOS group tended to have a lower incidence of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and allergic urticaria (4.8 vs 16% for both manifestations, p=0.08). There was no difference in the cumulative incidence of recurrent wheezing. With regard to the prevalences at 5 y, intervention group had significantly lower prevalence of any persistent allergic manifestation and rhinoconjunctivitis (4.8, 2.4 %, respectively) compared to placebo (26, 14 %, respectively) (p < 0.01 and =0.05). Prevalence of persistent AD tended to be lower in the intervention group (2.4 vs 12%, p= 0.09). Although intervention group had 75% reduction in the prevalence of persistent wheezing (4.8 vs 14 %), no significance was shown. Oligosaccharide prebiotics (scGOS/lcFOS), when started early in life have a protective effect against allergic manifestations in high risk infants. The protection lasts beyond infancy until 5 y of life, for AD and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Long-term follow-up studies in larger populations are warranted to evaluate the potential preventive effect of this mixture on asthma.


De Nisi G.,Italian Association of Human Milk Banks
Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents | Year: 2012

In a NICU early enteral feeding is usually possible only when the newborn clinical conditions permit it. Because of the frequent need of umbilical/central catheters, they usually start with parenteral feeding and/or with minimal enteral feeding (trophic feeding). This kind of management is even more frequent in VLBWIs, in which the risk of NEC is very high. In this work we describe a model of early enteral exclusive feeding (EEEF) based on the use of banking human milk followed by mother milk. In the Centre of Neonatology of Trento, as in other Centers, the newborns weighing less than 750g or with a GE< 27 weeks, are treated with parenteral nutrition and minimal enteral feeding. The newborn weighing 750-1249g and with GE > 26 weeks define a group in which we find critical neonates, who can not be treated with enteral feeding, and neonates whose clinical conditions permit EEEF. In particular, in a period of 16 years (1994-2009) in Trento, 308 newborns weighing 750-1249 g and GE > than 26 weeks were admitted. The 90,9 % has been treated with prenatal steroids, the 91,9 % was inborn, the 96,1% survived. In the 59,1 % of the cases (175) we gave EEEF. We could continue with a complete EEEF in the 40,2 % of the total (119 cases). The characteristics of these neonates and our centre management, based mainly on early use of banking human milk and mother milk, are detailed described.


Arslanoglu S.,Italian Association of Human Milk Banks | Ziegler E.E.,University of Iowa | Moro G.E.,Italian Association of Human Milk Banks | Moro G.E.,University of Milan
Journal of Perinatal Medicine | Year: 2010

In preterm infants, feeding with human milk (HM) is a very effective intervention for the prevention of infections and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and for potentially improved neurocognitive and cardiovascular outcomes in the long-term. Hospitals and physicians are advised to recommend HM for preterm and other high-risk infants either by direct breastfeeding and/or using the mother's own expressed milk. Donor HM is the preferred feeding when the mother's own milk is not available in sufficient quantity. While in some countries donor HM has been considered an effective tool in the delivery of health care to infants, skepticism regarding its nutritional and immunological quality has limited its distribution in other countries. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the clinical benefits of donor HM in preterm infants, and to discuss common concerns limiting its distribution as standard care. Clinically, the use of donor HM has been shown to prevent NEC, reduce feeding intolerance and improve long-term outcomes in premature infants. Common concerns, such as slow growth and loss of important biological components of donor HM due to storage and pasteurization, should not be a reason for denial of donor milk. Optimization of banking procedures and of HM fortification is available and should be applied. Banked donor milk should be promoted as standard component of health care for premature infants. © 2010 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York.


Arslanoglu S.,Italian Association of Human Milk Banks | Moro G.E.,Italian Association of Human Milk Banks | Moro G.E.,University of Milan | Ziegler E.E.,University of Iowa
Journal of Perinatal Medicine | Year: 2010

Preterm infants fed fortified human milk (HM) in standard (STD) fashion grow slower than preterm formula fed infants. Recently, low protein intake has been proven to be the primary limiting factor responsible for this growth failure. The main reason of protein undernutrition despite fortification is that STD fortification is based on the customary assumptions about the composition of HM. However, the protein concentration of preterm HM is variable and decreases with the duration of lactation. Also, the protein concentration of banked donor milk, which is most often provided by mothers of term infants, is likely to be lower. Hence, most of the HM fed to preterm infants during the fortification period is likely to have an inadequately low protein concentration. This hypothesis has been confirmed very recently by comparing the assumed and actual protein intakes in preterm infants fed fortified HM. Novel fortification models have been devised to deal with the problem of ongoing protein undernutrition. Individualized fortification is the recommended method to optimize HM fortification. There are two models of individualization: "adjustable fortification" and "targeted fortification". Both ways are feasible and effective in improving protein intakes and growth. Adjustable fortification has the advantage of being practical and avoids excessive protein intakes. © 2010 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York.


PubMed | Italian Association of Human Milk Banks
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents | Year: 2012

A mixture of neutral prebiotic oligosaccharides has been shown to reduce the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergy associated symptoms during the first 2 years of life.To evaluate if this protective effect against allergy lasted beyond the intervention period until 5 y of age.In a prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled fashion, healthy term infants at risk of atopy were fed either a prebiotic-supplemented (0.8 g/100 ml scGOS/lcFOS) or placebo-supplemented (0.8 g/100 ml maltodextrin) hypoallergenic formula during the first 6 mo of life. Following this intervention period, follow-up continued until 5 y of life. The present study evaluated (i) the cumulative incidence of allergic manifestations during 5 y, and (ii) the prevalence of allergic and persistent allergic manifestations at 5 y. Monitored allergic manifestations were AD, recurrent wheezing, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria.Ninety-two children (50 in placebo group, 42 in intervention group) completed the 5-y follow-up. The 5-y cumulative incidences of any allergic manifestation and atopic dermatitis were significantly lower in the scGOS/lcFOS group (30.9, 19.1 %, respectively) compared to placebo group (66, 38 %, respectively) (p< 0.01 and< 0.05). Children in the scGOS/lcFOS group tended to have a lower incidence of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and allergic urticaria (4.8 vs 16% for both manifestations, p=0.08). There was no difference in the cumulative incidence of recurrent wheezing. With regard to the prevalences at 5 y, intervention group had significantly lower prevalence of any persistent allergic manifestation and rhinoconjunctivitis (4.8, 2.4 %, respectively) compared to placebo (26, 14 %, respectively) (p < 0.01 and =0.05). Prevalence of persistent AD tended to be lower in the intervention group (2.4 vs 12%, p= 0.09). Although intervention group had 75% reduction in the prevalence of persistent wheezing (4.8 vs 14 %), no significance was shown.Oligosaccharide prebiotics (scGOS/lcFOS), when started early in life have a protective effect against allergic manifestations in high risk infants. The protection lasts beyond infancy until 5 y of life, for AD and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Long-term follow-up studies in larger populations are warranted to evaluate the potential preventive effect of this mixture on asthma.


PubMed | University of Turin, CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production and Italian Association of Human Milk Banks
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrients | Year: 2016

When a mothers milk is unavailable, the best alternative is donor milk (DM). Milk delivered to Human Milk Banks should be pasteurized in order to inactivate the microbial agents that may be present. Currently, pasteurization, performed at 62.5 C for 30 min (Holder Pasteurization, HoP), is recommended for this purpose in international guidelines. Several studies have been performed to investigate the effects of HoP on the properties of DM. The present paper has the aim of reviewing the published papers on this topic, and to provide a comparison of the reported variations of biologically-active DM components before and after HoP. This review was performed by searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL and Cochrane Library databases. Studies that clearly identified the HoP parameters and compared the same DM samples, before and after pasteurization, were focused on. A total of 44 articles satisfied the above criteria, and were therefore selected. The findings from the literature report variable results. A possible explanation for this may be the heterogeneity of the test protocols that were applied. Moreover, the present review spans more than five decades, and modern pasteurizers may be able to modify the degradation kinetics for heat-sensitive substances, compared to older ones. Overall, the data indicate that HoP affects several milk components, although it is difficult to quantify the degradation degree. However, clinical practices demonstrate that many beneficial properties of DM still persist after HoP.


PubMed | Italian Association of Human Milk Banks
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of perinatal medicine | Year: 2013

Human milk confers health benefits of vital importance for the sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Mothers own milk is the first choice in preterm infant feeding, and every effort should be made to promote lactation. When mothers milk is not available or is insufficient, donor human milk (DHM) is recommended. Yet, occasionally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease breastfeeding is being raised. The present data collection planned by the Italian Association of Human Milk Banks (AIBLUD) in collaboration with the Italian Neonatal Network (INN) attempted to address this concern. A total of 4277 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants from 83 Italian NICUs were evaluated for this comparative analysis. The 83 Italian NICUs were divided into two groups: centers with a human milk bank (HMB) and centers without a HMB; the available parameters in the network--any and exclusive breastfeeding rates and exclusive formula rate at discharge--were compared. Exclusive breastfeeding rate at discharge was significantly higher in NICUs with a HMB than in NICUs without (29.6% vs. 16.0%, respectively). Any breastfeeding rate at discharge tended to be higher in the NICUs with HMB (60.4% vs. 52.8%, P = 0.09), and exclusive formula rate was lower in the NICUs with HMB (26.5% vs. 31.3%), but this difference was not significant. This report shows that the presence of a HMB and the use of DHM in NICU are associated with increased breastfeeding rate at discharge from the hospital for VLBW infants.


Arslanoglu S.,Italian Association of Human Milk Banks | Arslanoglu S.,Izmir Dr Behcet Uz Childrens Hospital | Corpeleijn W.,VU University Amsterdam | Corpeleijn W.,Emma Childrens Hospital | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Year: 2013

The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to document the existing evidence of the benefits and common concerns deriving from the use of donor human milk (DHM) in preterm infants. The comment also outlines gaps in knowledge and gives recommendations for practice and suggestions for future research directions. Protection against necrotizing enterocolitis is the major clinical benefit deriving from the use of DHM when compared with formula. Limited data also suggest unfortified DHM to be associated with improved feeding tolerance and with reduced cardiovascular risk factors during adolescence. Presence of a human milk bank (HMB) does not decrease breast-feeding rates at discharge, but decreases the use of formula during the first weeks of life. This commentary emphasizes that fresh own motherÊs milk (OMM) is the first choice in preterm infant feeding and strong efforts should be made to promote lactation. When OMM is not available, DHM is the recommended alternative. When neither OMM nor DHM is available, preterm formula should be used. DHM should be provided from an established HMB, which follows specific safety guidelines. Storage and processing of human milk reduces some biological components, which may diminish its health benefits. From a nutritional point of view, DHM, like HM, does not meet the requirements of preterm infants, necessitating a specific fortification regimen to optimize growth. Future research should focus on the improvement of milk processing in HMB, particularly of heat treatment; on the optimization of HM fortification; and on further evaluation of the potential clinical benefits of processed and fortified DHM. Copyright © 2013 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

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