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Cavallero G.M.,Italferr | Morda N.,DoMo Studio | Siniscalco G.N.,SI.ME.TE Srl
Ingegneria Ferroviaria | Year: 2012

The contribution proposes the description of a procedure to be applied in Load tests for the testing of horizontal structures, through the aid of a theoretical presentation for the determination of the constraint coefficients on the actual structure, both for distributed test loads and for concentrated loads. Some practical examples for the various cases are also presented with explanatory function. Source


Pigorini A.,Italferr | Sciotti A.,Italferr | Zoppo G.,Italferr
Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground - Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground | Year: 2012

The Cassia-Monte Mario railway tunnel, which runs through a hill in the northern part of Rome (Italy), has required invert demolition and reconstruction. The tunnel crosses heterogeneous sandy and silty soils below the water table. In order to prevent the ingress of water, the ground freezing technique was applied. The paper describes the design predictions based on simplified thermal analyses, laboratory tests and real-scale trial fields which were performed to integrate and validate the design predictions. Field tests were supported by automatic monitoring system implemented to measure the temperatures in the ground and deformation effects induced by freezing on the lining. The paper focuses on the role played by field tests which gave a decisive contribution to the correct and effective planning of the execution phase. This allowed to reach a better insight into the application of the ground freezing for underground works. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group. Source


Farrell R.,Laing ORourke | Mair R.,University of Cambridge | Sciotti A.,Italferr | Pigorini A.,Italferr
Soils and Foundations | Year: 2014

Understanding how buildings respond to tunnelling-induced ground movements is an area of great importance for urban tunnelling projects, particularly for risk management. In this paper, observations of building response to tunnelling, from both centrifuge modelling and a field study in Bologna, are used to identify mechanisms governing the soil-structure interaction. Centrifuge modelling was carried out on an 8-m-diameter beam centrifuge at Cambridge University, with buildings being modelled as highly simplified elastic and inelastic beams of varying stiffness and geometry. The Bologna case study presents the response of two different buildings to the construction of a sprayed concrete lining (SCL) tunnel, 12 m in diameter, with jet grouting and face reinforcement. In both studies, a comparison of the building settlement and horizontal displacement profiles, with the greenfield ground movements, enables the soil structure interaction to be quantified. Encouraging agreement between the modification to the greenfield settlement profile, displayed by the buildings, and estimates made from existing predictive tools is observed. Similarly, both studies indicate that the horizontal strains, induced in the buildings, are typically at least an order of magnitude smaller than the greenfield values. This is consistent with observations in the literature. The potential modification to the settlement distortions is shown to have significant implications on the estimated level of damage. Potential issues for infrastructures connected to buildings, arising from the embedment of rigid buildings into the soil, are also highlighted. © 2014 The Japanese Geotechnical Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Farrell R.P.,Laing ORourke | Mair R.J.,University of Cambridge | Sciotti A.,Italferr | Pigorini A.,Italferr | Ricci M.,Italferr
Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground - Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground | Year: 2012

The response of buildings to tunnelling induced ground movements is an area of great importance for many urban tunnelling projects. This paper presents the response of two buildings to the construction of a 12 m diameter sprayed concrete lining (SCL) tunnel with face reinforcement, in Italy. Soil and structure displacements were monitored through extensive instrumentation. The settlement response of the two buildings was found to differ significantly, demonstrating both flexible and rigid response mechanisms. Comparison of the building settlement profiles with greenfield settlements enables the soil structure interaction to be quantified. Encouraging agreement between the modification to the greenfield settlement profile displayed by buildings and estimates made from existing predictive tools is observed. Potential issues for infrastructure connected to buildings, arising from the embedment of rigid buildings into the soil, are also highlighted. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group. Source


Farrell R.P.,University of Cambridge | Mair R.J.,University of Cambridge | Pigorini A.,Italferr | Ricci M.,Italferr | Sciotti A.,Italferr
Ingegneria Ferroviaria | Year: 2011

A case study of the response of two buildings to the construction of a 12 m diameter tunnel excavated by conventional method, in Italy, is studied. The 12 m diameter tunnel was constructed carrying out reinforcement of the tunnel face and around the crown prior to excavation and installation of the temporary sprayed concrete lining and the permanent reinforced concrete lining. Reflective prisms, placed at first floor level around the perimeter of the building facades, allowed building settlements to be measured. Ground settlements between the two buildings were measured using BRE type settlement studs. Extensive protective measures were adopted to maintain stability of the tunnel excavation and to reduce ground movements. The number of horizontal jet grout columns installed into the tunnel face was reduced over the course of the project. Results from CPT tests indicate that the undrained shear strength at the tunnel axis is around 120 kPa. SPT and undrained unconsolidated (UU) triaxial tests indicate lower strengths of around 80 kPa, although this may be due to sample disturbance. Source

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