PubMed | University of Zaragoza, University of Valladolid and ITACYL
Type: | Journal: Waste management (New York, N.Y.) | Year: 2016
After the ban on sodium arsenite, waste management alternatives to the prevalent burning method, such as the hygienization and biodegradation in solid phase by composting, are required for the pruned material from grapevines affected by various fungi. In this work the dynamics of a fungus associated with vine decay (Diplodia seriata) during the composting process of a mixture of laying hen manure and vine pruning waste (2:1w/w) have been investigated in an open pile and a discontinuous closed biodigester. Through the optimization of the various physical-chemical parameters, hygienization of the infected waste materials was attained, yielding class-A organo-mineral fertilizers. Nevertheless, important differences in the efficiency of each system were observed: whereas in the open pile it took 10days to control D. seriata and 35 additional composting days to achieve full inactivation, in the discontinuous biodigester the fungus was entirely inactivated within the first 3-7days. Finally, the impact of seasonal variability was assessed and summer temperatures shown to have greater significance in the open pile.
Medina-Plaza C.,University of Valladolid |
Garcia-Hernandez C.,University of Valladolid |
de Saja J.A.,University of Valladolid |
Fernandez-Escudero J.A.,Estacion Enologica de Castilla y Leon |
And 5 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015
Disposable screen-printed sensors have been modified with enzymes and used to form a bioelectronic tongue dedicated to the discrimination between different grape varieties. The multisensory system combined serigraphied electrodes modified with carbon, platinum, gold, graphene, Prussian blue and nickel oxide nanoparticles (M-SPE) covered with glucose oxidase (M-GOX-SPE) or tyrosinase (M-Tyr-SPE).The M-GOX-SPE and M-Tyr-SPE sensors produced a variety of responses due to the different behavior of the electron mediators of the six screen-printed materials used for the electro-catalysis of the glucose and phenols by means of glucose oxidase and tyrosinase.This variety of responses, together with the capability of the sensors to detect glucose or phenols, allowed the bioelectronic tongue developed here to discriminate between the juices obtained from different varieties of grape.Partial least-squares (PLS-1) multivariate calibration of electrochemical data has been successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of glucose and polyphenols in musts.The discrimination capability shown by this array of cheap and single-use sensors was similar to that found in other complex bioelectronic tongues. The lower price, ease of use and portability of the modified screen-printed electrode system makes the bioelectronic tongue developed here an alternative tool that can be used in situ in the vineyard block. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
PubMed | Bodega Cooperativa de Cigales, University of Valladolid, ITACYL and Estacion Enologica de Castilla y Leon
Type: | Journal: Analytica chimica acta | Year: 2016
A bioelectronic tongue based on nanostructured biosensors specific for the simultaneous detection of sugars and phenols has been developed. The array combined oxidases and dehydrogenases immobilized on a lipidic layer prepared using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique where Glucose oxidase, d-Fructose dehydrogenase, Tyrosinase or Laccase were imbibed. A phthalocyanine was co-immobilized in the sensing layer and used as electron mediator. The array thus formed has been used to analyze grapes and provides global information about the samples while providing specific information about their phenolic and their sugar content. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) the array of voltammetric biosensors has been successfully used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes (Tempranillo, Garnacha, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Prieto Picudo and Menca). Differences could be also detected between grapes of the same variety and cultivar harvested in two successive vintages (2012 and 2013). Moreover, the ripening of grapes could be monitored from veraison to maturity due to the changes in their phenolic and sugar content. Using Partial Least Squares (PLS-1) analysis, excellent correlations have been found between the responses provided by the array of biosensors and classical parameters directly related to phenols (total polyphenol index, TPI) and sugar concentration (degree Brix) measured by chemical methods with correlation coefficients close to 1 and errors close to 0. It is also worthy to notice the good correlations found with parameters associated with the pH and acidity that can be explained by taking into account the influence of the pH in the oxidation potentials of the phenols and in the enzymatic activity. This bioelectronic tongue can assess simultaneously the sugar and the phenolic content of grapes and could be used to monitor the maturity of the fruit and could be adapted easily to field analysis.
Elia M.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology |
Swanston J.S.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology |
Moralejo M.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology |
Casas A.,CSIC - Aula Dei Experimental Station |
And 6 more authors.
Plant Breeding | Year: 2010
With 2 figures and 2 tablesTo study the genetic control of malting quality, in North American and European barley varieties, over five contrasting environments, 106 doubled haploid (DH) lines, from the cross 'Triumph' × 'Morex', were grown at Pullman (Washington State, USA) in 2002, Dundee (Scotland) in 2003 and 2005 and Lleida and Valladolid (Northern Spain) in 2006. The vrs locus, associated with two-row vs. six-row ear type, had a significant effect, as two-row lines had higher grain protein content at all sites. This had variable effects on other malting parameters, but hot water extract (EXT) was not significantly affected at the two Spanish sites. Quantitative trait loci associated with malting characters were distributed across all seven chromosomes, but the most influential, with effects on EXT and alcohol yield, at more than one site, were on 1H, with 'Morex' providing the increasing allele and 5H, with the increasing allele from 'Triumph'. Transgressive segregation, in both directions, occurred at all sites. It was concluded that crosses between European and North American germplasm could enhance quality attributes in barley cultivated across diverse environments. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Martin J.P.,Technical University of Madrid |
Arranz C.,ITACyL |
Castro I.D.,ITACyL |
Yuste J.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering |
And 3 more authors.
Vitis - Journal of Grapevine Research | Year: 2011
A broad prospection of grapevine plants was carried out in northwest Spain and north of Portugal during the period from 2002 to 2009. It included zones located in Galicia as well as in the provinces of León, Zamora and Salamanca in Spain and the region delimited by the right side of the Douro river and the Spanish border in Portugal. A total of 669 accessions were sampled, studied and identified, both by using the six microsatellite loci included in the OIV descriptors list, plus ampelographic characters. As a result of the study a total of 53 different grapevine varieties were identified. Most of them correspond to minor varieties that are present in the zone. In many cases the same variety was detected in both countries, although denominated with different names that are synonymous. The molecular markers that were analyzed are those included in the OIV 801 to 806 descriptors, and correspond to the following loci: VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, VVMD27, ssrVrZAG62 and ssrVrZAG79. Allele sizes of the studied varieties are recorded. Relationships among these varieties seem to be possible. Recommended priority names for the studied varieties both in Spain and in Portugal are listed, in order to avoid misidentifications and reduce the incidence of homonymies.
Sanchez-Garcia M.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology |
Royo C.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology |
Aparicio N.,ITACyL |
Martin-Sanchez J.A.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology |
Alvaro F.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology
Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2013
A collection of 26 wheat genotypes widely grown in Spain during the 20th century was evaluated in eight contrasting environments in order to quantify breeding achievements in yield and associated traits. From 1930 to 2000, yield increased at a rate of 35.1 kg/ha/yr or 0.88%/yr, but estimations of relative genetic gain (RGG) were environment-dependent. RGG estimated for yield were positively associated with the average minimum daily temperatures from sowing to heading in the testing environments (R 2 = 0.81; P < 0.01). The number of grains/spike and the number of spikes/m2 increased at a rate of 0.60%/yr and 0.30%/yr, respectively, while grain weight remained unchanged. The present study detected two main episodes of yield improvement during the century. The first one coincided with the introduction, during the 1950s, of the first improved cultivars derived from intra-specific crosses, which increased the yield of landraces by 30% due to an increase of c. 58% in the number of grains/spike, accompanied by a 16% reduction in grain weight. These initial cultivars (termed 'old-bred' in a previous study by Sanchez-Garcia et al. 2012) exhibited a higher harvest index (HI), increased from 0.25 to 0.40, but maintained the same aboveground biomass at maturity as the landraces (despite reducing both plant height and the number of tillers/plant) due to increases in the proportion of tillers bearing spikes. The second yield gain occurred after the introduction, in the early 1970s, of semi-dwarf germplasm from CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre) and some French cultivars. This new germplasm further reduced plant height, improved HI up to 0.45 and increased the number of tillers/plant while maintaining their rate of fertility, thus resulting in a yield gain of c. 37%. The cultivars released during the last decade of the century did not contribute to significant yield improvements. Copyright © 2012 Cambridge University Press.
Martin J.P.,E.T.S.I. Agronomos |
Arranz C.,ITACyL |
Castro I.D.,UTAD |
Yuste J.,UTAD |
And 3 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011
Between 2002 to 2009, samples of grape plants were obtained from northwest Spain and northern Portugal. More than 650 accessions were sampled, studied and identified, using the six microsatellite loci included in the last edition of the International Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV) descriptors list, plus ampelographic characters evaluated in old leaves, bunches and berries. A total of 26 grapevine cultivars, 12 white and 14 black were identified. Several synonyms and homonyms were detected. Some of the synonyms mentioned in the literature were discussed. The primary Spanish and Portuguese names are given to avoid misidentification and errors in the determination of specific genotypes of grape cultivars.