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Hansen D.W.,IT University of Copenhagen | Ji Q.,IT University of Copenhagen
IEEE transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence | Year: 2010

Despite active research and significant progress in the last 30 years, eye detection and tracking remains challenging due to the individuality of eyes, occlusion, variability in scale, location, and light conditions. Data on eye location and details of eye movements have numerous applications and are essential in face detection, biometric identification, and particular human-computer interaction tasks. This paper reviews current progress and state of the art in video-based eye detection and tracking in order to identify promising techniques as well as issues to be further addressed. We present a detailed review of recent eye models and techniques for eye detection and tracking. We also survey methods for gaze estimation and compare them based on their geometric properties and reported accuracies. This review shows that, despite their apparent simplicity, the development of a general eye detection technique involves addressing many challenges, requires further theoretical developments, and is consequently of interest to many other domains problems in computer vision and beyond.

Ling R.,IT University of Copenhagen
Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication | Year: 2010

SMS has grown to be a common form of interaction in Norwegian society. Its adoption started among teens but has since been taken into use by other age groups. However, the use patterns for teens seem to be different from those of older users. This paper examines the assertion that SMS is a life phase and not a cohort phenomenon. That is, its use is more intense among teens and more moderate among older age groups. Data for the analysis comes from a series of six nation-wide surveys of Norwegians over the age of 13. Questions on the reported use of SMS were included in all these surveys. This information was adjusted in order to remove the effects of generally increased use over time. The analysis shows that the proportion of text messages sent by different age groups stays rather stable over time. Indeed there seems to be a type of "standing wave" of use associated with older teens and those in their early 20s. While there are cohort effects visible in the data, the analysis indicates that texting is largely a life phase phenomenon. If the curve had flattened out with time it would have indicated that the teens are carrying texting with them as they grow older. This, it seems is not the case. The overall use of SMS has increased in Norwegian society but the relative distribution of the text messages has remained centered around those in their late teens. This seems to indicate that the intense use of SMS is a life-phase phenomenon. © 2010 International Communication Association.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-35-2016 | Award Amount: 2.00M | Year: 2017

The networked future promises new relationships between people and artifacts, the private and the public, the individual and the collective. The increased networking capabilities of pervasive technologies mean that of personal data are being produced, analyzed, monetized and connected to other data streams in ways that hold both enormous potential and pose profound challenges for European society. Recent policy, such as the EU General Data Protection Regulation, reflects mounting public concerns around emerging data practices, RRI, data ethics and privacy. VIRT-EU addresses these concerns at the point of design through researching and intervening upon the development cultures and ethics of the next-generation IoT innovators. We ask how do European IoT innovators and developers make ethically consequential decisions about code, hardware and data for new connective devices? What assumptions about human behavior, privacy and freedom underpin European cultures of IoT innovation? Leveraging state of the art collaborative SSH and ICT methodological innovations, VIRT-EU will analyze and map the ethical practices of European hardware and software entrepreneurs, maker and hacker spaces, and community innovators. Our goals are to (1) understand how IoT innovators enact ethics as they design future devices and to (2) generate a new framework for Privacy, Ethical and Social Impact Assessment (PESIA), which will proactively position ethical self-assessments in the development process of IoT technologies. These tools, informed by legal approaches, data mining, quantitative and qualitative social science and design research serve to secure a place for societal concerns in the generation of new technologies, engaging societal stakeholders in ensuring a digital future which is populated by innovative devices and services that are explicitly aligned with, and conscious of, the ethical and social values held by EU citizens.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: CULT-COOP-08-2016 | Award Amount: 2.44M | Year: 2017

A main challenge with the development of virtual museums is establishing meaningful user experiences that allow for personal, complex and emotional encounters with art and cultural heritage. The GIFT project suggests creating meaningful personalization through digital gifting and emotional appropriation: Designs for allowing visitors to create their own museum tours as digital mixtapes, and to play with technologies that measure emotional responses to artwork as a playful reappropriation of museum spaces. We aim to accommodate the complex ways in which users may confront art and heritage content, and engage users to participate and share experiences that are emotionally poignant and personally profound. Through multidisciplinary, practice-based research we will develop, test and validate two ground-breaking prototypes for digital encounters with cultural heritage. From this process we will develop a framework with theory, tools, design guidelines and best practice recommendations for creating meaningful personalization of hybrid virtual museum experiences. The GIFT consortium includes leading artists and researchers with a long history of successful collaborations, who will be working with a panel of 10 lead users from prominent European museums, to develop theoretical and practical advances with great impact for the cultural heritage sector and European society. By enabling more engaging hybrid virtual/physical museum experiences, we will contribute to increasing citizens curiosity and engagement. The hybrid format will also help make both virtual museum experiences as well as physical visits more engaging and attractive, thus contributing to economic growth through ticket sales as well as digital sales. By providing frameworks that help non-technical experts in the heritage sector to build and experiment with meaningful personalization of digital cultural heritage, the project gives the sector tools to build and innovate further.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.9.6 | Award Amount: 3.34M | Year: 2014

We will develop artificial, technological evolution and use it to design functional ecosystems consisting of up to three forms of living technology, namely, artificial chemical life, living microorganisms, and complex chemical reaction networks for the purpose of improved treatment and cleanup of wastewater for energy generation. The goals of this project are i) develop a general, robotic platform, which by using artificial evolution can optimize the performance of a physicochemical or microbial system and its environment and ii) use the robotic platform to evolve improved microbial fuel cells in terms of robustness, longevity, or adaptability. The robot evolutionary platform will take the form of an open-source 3D printer extended with functionality for handling liquids and reaction vessels, and for obtaining feedback from the reaction vessels either using computer vision or task-specific sensors in real-time. The robot platform will optimize parameters such as the environment, hydraulics or real-time interaction with experiments (for instance, timing of injection of nutrients, removal of metabolic products, stirring, etc.) to maximize a desired functionality. Initially, we investigate processes such as fluid-structure-interaction driving bio-aggregate structure and in turn metabolic activity as well as the interaction of nanoparticles and bacterial cells by analyzing the outcome of the evolutionary process using state-of-the-art imaging techniques. We then seek to exploit synergies between these technologies to significantly improve the ability of the living technology, in the form of optimized microbial fuel cells, to cleanup wastewater. Overall, this is a cross-disciplinary project involving state-of-the-art chemistry, imaging, robotics, artificial life, microbiology and bio-energy harvesting for the purpose of enhancing our understanding of living technologies and how to best design and exploit groundbreaking bio-hybrid systems.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: ERC-CG | Phase: ERC-CG-2013-PE6 | Award Amount: 1.89M | Year: 2014

Similarity search is the task of identifying, in a collection of items, the ones that are similar to a given query item. This task has a range of important applications (e.g. in information retrieval, pattern recognition, statistics, and machine learning) where data sets are often big, high dimensional, and possibly noisy. State-of-the-art methods for similarity search offer only weak guarantees when faced with big data. Either the space overhead is excessive (1000s of times larger than the space for the data itself), or the work needed to report the similar items may be comparable to the work needed to go through all items (even if just a tiny fraction of the items are similar). As a result, many applications have to resort to the use of ad-hoc solutions with only weak theoretical guarantees. This proposal aims at strengthening the theoretical foundation of scalable similarity search, and developing novel practical similarity search methods backed by theory. In particular we will: - Leverage new types of embeddings that are kernelized, asymmetric, and complex-valued. - Consider statistical models of noise in data, and design similarity search data structures whose performance guarantees are phrased in statistical terms. - Build a new theory of the communication complexity of distributed, dynamic similarity search, emphasizing the communication bottleneck present in modern computing infrastructures. The objective is to produce new methods for similarity search that are: 1) Provably robust, 2) scalable to large and high-dimensional data sets, 3) substantially more resource efficient than current state-ofthe- art solutions, and 4) able to provide statistical guarantees on query answers. The study of similarity search has been an incubator for techniques (e.g. locality-sensitive hashing and random projections) that have wide-ranging applications. The new techniques developed in this project are likely to have significant impacts beyond similarity search.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETPROACT-2-2014 | Award Amount: 3.64M | Year: 2015

This projects objective is to develop and to investigate closely linked symbiotic relationships between robots and natural plants and to explore the potentials of a plant-robot society able to produce architectural artifacts and living spaces. We will create a society of robot-plant bio-hybrids functioning as an embodied, self-organizing, and distributed cognitive system. The system grows and develops over long periods of time in interactions with humans resulting in the creation of meaningful architectural structures. The robotic assemblies (artificial plants) support and control the biological plants through appropriate scaffolding, watering, and stimuli that exploit the plants different tropisms. The natural plant, in turn, supports and controls the robotic plant by guiding it through growth and support the weight of the robot in later growth phases. The artificial plants are built from small heterogeneous sensing and actuation modules connected using lightweight construction elements. Each robotic plant connects wirelessly to the Internet. In contrast to top-down control, we explore a developmental plasticity of bio-hybrid systems, where robots and plans grow together from sprout to adult stage and form a closely co-dependent and self-organized system. The robot-plant organisms live in a human-inhabited environment and through interaction with humans grow into architectural structures (e.g., walls, roofs, benches) providing functionality such as shade, air quality control, and stress relief. Humans, plants, and robots form an internet-connected social garden where desired structures and behavior patterns emerge based on both local interactions and global interaction with parts of the garden growing at other locations. Hence, the social garden is a cultural system that shows long-term learning and adaptation where all past actions and interactions between the natural and artificial plants are represented in the embodiment of the garden.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: ERC-ADG | Phase: ERC-ADG-2015 | Award Amount: 2.01M | Year: 2016

Making Sense of Games (MSG) will build a methodology for the humanistic study of games, and develop a theory of how ludic meaning is produced. Following the pervasive, global growth of video gaming culture and the games industry, the multi-disciplinary field of game studies has grown exponentially in the last 15 years, with numerous new journals, conferences, university programs and research departments. However, still lacking at this adolescent stage of the fields development are game-specific methods and theoretical foundations necessary to train researchers and build curricula. In aesthetic games research there is not yet any widely accepted methodology for game analysis, and there has not yet been any large-scale, long-term attempt to produce a theoretical platform that can support and advance the field. MSG aims to fill this gap by combining fundamental hermeneutic approaches (semiotics, reception theory, reader response, theories of representation, narrative theory) with recent theories of ludic structure (game ontology) into a hermeneutic theory of game meaning, which can be used as a set of tools and concepts for game analysis and criticism. MSG will be a triple first for aesthetic game research: a five-year research program, a hermeneutic theory of games, and a team-based effort to build an interdisciplinary methodology. The results from MSG will speak to many of the current public concerns and debates about games, such as gamer culture, games cultural and artistic status, the representation of minorities, misogyny, violence and even addiction. MSG will demonstrate the strong usefulness of humanistic approaches not only to game studies itself, but also to the 21st centurys most vibrant new cultural sector. It will also provide other aesthetic fields (literary studies, film studies, art history) with theoretical models, critical insights, and a rich empirical material for comparative exploration.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-ARTEMIS | Phase: SP1-JTI-ARTEMIS-2011-1 | Award Amount: 13.18M | Year: 2012

In order to succeed or even to survive, manufacturers and system integrators must be able to deliver new products with speed, diversity, high quality, and at an acceptable cost. Embedded Systems (ES) are rarely entirely conceived from scratch. Companies developing ES constantly face decisions about using and adapting existing products or product assets versus new developments. Determining the long term risk and benefits of such decisions is very challenging. Complex ES are often produced by assembling parts supplied by different partners. This adds extra complexity that all actors in the supply chain need to manage. Safety critical ES product ecosystems require mechanisms allowing safe and trusted integration of ES components. Furthermore, safety critical ES need to comply with stringent safety standards. Determining the safety level based on individual parts safety characteristics is far from straightforward. The main goal of the VARIES project is to help ES developers to maximize the full potential of variability in safety critical ES. The objectives of this project will be therefore (i) to enable companies to make informed decisions on variability use in safety critical ES; (ii) to provide effective variability architectures and approaches for safety-critical ES; and (iii) to offer consistent, integrated and continuous variability management over the entire product life cycle. The VARIES project will deliver the VARIES Platform: a complete, cross-domain, multi-concern, state-of-the-art reference platform for managing variability in safety critical ES. Special attention will be given to aspects specific to safety critical ES, in particular the impact of reuse and composition on certification. In addition to this ambitious goal, the VARIES project will create a Center of Innovation Excellence (CoIE) for managing variability in ES. The VARIES CoIE will support the European ES industry on the 3 aforementioned objectives. APPROVED BY ARTEMIS_JU On 23rd April 2015 (partial transfer of rights from #14 ATEGO UK to #24 PTC). Part B description is for ATEGO UK \ PTC together

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: ICT-26-2016 | Award Amount: 7.65M | Year: 2017

ROSIN will create a step change in the availability of high-quality intelligent robot software components for the European industry. This is achieved by building on the existing open-source Robot Operating System (ROS) framework and leveraging its worldwide community. ROS and its subsidiary ROS-Industrial (European side led by TU Delft and Fraunhofer) is well-known, but its European industrial potential is underestimated. The two main critiques are (1) is the quality on par with industry, and (2) is there enough European industrial interest to justify investing in it? Partially, the answer is yes and yes; ample industrial installations are already operational. Partially however, the two questions hold each other in deadlock, because further quality improvement requires industrial investment and vice versa. ROSIN will resolve the deadlock and put Europe in a leading position. For software quality, ROSIN introduces a breakthrough innovation in automated code quality testing led by IT University Copenhagen, complemented with a full palette of quality assurance measures including novel model-in-the-loop continuous integration testing with ABB robots. Simultaneously, more ROS-Industrial tools and components will be created by making 50% of the ROSIN budget available to collaborating European industrial users and developers for so-called Focused Technical Projects. ROSIN maximizes budget efficacy by alleviating yet another deadlock; experience shows that industry will fund ROS-Industrial developments, but only after successful delivery. ROSIN provides pre-financing for developers which will be recovered into a future revolving fund to perpetuate the mechanism. Together with broad education activities (open for any EU party) led by Fachhochshule Aachen and community-building activities led by Fraunhofer, ROSIN will let ROS-Industrial reach critical mass with further self-propelled growth resulting in a widely adopted, high-quality, open-source industrial standard.

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