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Villenave-d'Ornon, France

Corio-Costet M.F.,CNRS Agroecology Lab | Dufour M.C.,CNRS Agroecology Lab | Cluzet S.,ISVV | Lambert C.,ISVV | Merdinoglu D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Stimulating plant defenses or resistant plant varieties is promising as an alternative method for limiting pesticide use in agriculture. To assess the defense status of the grapevine we have developed a triple approach called "BioMolChem". The biological tests measure the efficacy of grapevine defenses against two major biotrophic pathogens (Erysiphe necator, Plasmopara viticola). Molecular assays by q-RT-qPCR show the expression patterns (over-expression or repression) of 20 genes involved in grapevine defenses, and they can then be correlated or not with the level of protection. Biochemical analyses of phenylpropanoides by HPLC are used to quantify and identify molecules of interest, and correlate them with specific gene expression (stilbene biosynthesis) and the acquired protection. This tool was tested on leaves ('Cabernet Sauvignon') after stimulation by different elicitors (benzothiadiazole, phosphonates), on grapevine, 'Cabernet Sauvignon', genotypes resistant to powdery and downy mildew, and in the vineyard. We obtained correlations between the expression of PR-protein genes and genes coding for biosynthesis pathways (stilbene, tryptophan) and with the level of protection. Similarly, we found correlations between the presence of known and unknown molecules and the level of protection. Resveratrol, a well-known phytoalexin of the grapevine, is a good marker of defense status but not of protection. Therefore, we now have available a tool for understanding the defense and protection status of the grapevine in laboratory and field experiments. Source

Moreno M.J.C.,ISVV | Hevin C.,ISVV | Ollat N.,ISVV | Cookson S.J.,ISVV
Plant Signaling and Behavior | Year: 2014

Gene expression changes induced during graft union formation (the first month after grafting) in grapevine have been studied using whole genome microarrays. The genes differentially expressed between the rootstock and graft interface tissues of homo-grafts (Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) grafted onto CS) were compared at 3 and 28 days after grafting (dag). Graft union formation was associated with the upregulation of genes involved in secondary metabolism, cell wall, wound responses and hormone signaling. These gene expression differences were associated with the accumulation of lignin, cellulose and callose in the callus cells. Superimposed upon this, hetero-grafting between two different grapevine genotypes resulted in the further upregulation of stress and/or defense responses at the graft interface. Here we discuss the limitations of the techniques used to study the developments at the graft interface to date and future research directions to understand graft union formation in plants. © 2014 Landes Bioscience. Source

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