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Martella V.,University of Bari | Moschidou P.,University of Bari | Catella C.,University of Bari | Larocca V.,University of Bari | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology

Infection by a novel canine astrovirus was associated with gastroenteritis in two dogs. The virus displayed 70.3 to 73.9% amino acid identity to other canine astroviruses in the full-length capsid. Specific antibodies were detected in the convalescent-phase sera of the dogs, indicating seroconversion. Also, the virus appeared weakly related antigenically to the prototype canine astrovirus isolate ITA/2008/Bari. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Brookes S.M.,Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge | Nunez A.,Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge | Choudhury B.,Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge | Matrosovich M.,University of Marburg | And 20 more authors.

The declaration of the human influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (H1N1/09) raised important questions, including origin and host range [1,2]. Two of the three pandemics in the last century resulted in the spread of virus to pigs (H1N1, 1918; H3N2, 1968) with subsequent independent establishment and evolution within swine worldwide [3]. A key public and veterinary health consideration in the context of the evolving pandemic is whether the H1N1/09 virus could become established in pig populations [4]. We performed an infection and transmission study in pigs with A/California/07/09. In combination, clinical, pathological, modified influenza A matrix gene real time RT-PCR and viral genomic analyses have shown that infection results in the induction of clinical signs, viral pathogenesis restricted to the respiratory tract, infection dynamics consistent with endemic strains of influenza A in pigs, virus transmissibility between pigs and virus-host adaptation events. Our results demonstrate that extant H1N1/09 is fully capable of becoming established in global pig populations. We also show the roles of viral receptor specificity in both transmission and tissue tropism. Remarkably, following direct inoculation of pigs with virus quasispecies differing by amino acid substitutions in the haemagglutinin receptor-binding site, only virus with aspartic acid at position 225 (225D) was detected in nasal secretions of contact infected pigs. In contrast, in lower respiratory tract samples from directly inoculated pigs, with clearly demonstrable pulmonary pathology, there was apparent selection of a virus variant with glycine (225G). These findings provide potential clues to the existence and biological significance of viral receptor-binding variants with 225D and 225G during the 1918 pandemic [5]. © 2009 Crown. Source

Zanardi G.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Lombardia ed Emilia Romagna | Caminiti A.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Lombardia ed Emilia Romagna | Delle Donne G.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Lombardia ed Emilia Romagna | Moroni P.,University of Milan | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science

For more than 30 yr, a control plan for Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus has been carried out in more than 1,500 dairy herds of the province of Brescia (northern Italy). From 2010 to 2011, the apparent prevalence of Strep. agalactiae has been relatively stable around 10%, but the apparent prevalence of Staph. aureus has been greater than 40% with an increasing trend. The aim of this paper was to estimate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of 3 assays for the detection of Strep. agalactiae and Staph. aureus in bulk-tank milk samples (BTMS) in field conditions. The assays were a qualitative and a quantitative bacteriological culture (BC) for each pathogen and a homemade multiplex real-time PCR (rt-PCR). Because a gold standard was not available, the sensitivities (Se) and specificities (Sp) were evaluated using a Bayesian latent class approach. In 2012 we collected one BTMS from 165 dairy herds that were found positive for Strep. agalactiae in the previous 2-yr campaigns of eradication plan. In most cases, BTMS collected in these herds were positive for Staph. aureus as well, confirming the wide spread of this pathogen. At the same time we also collected composite milk samples from all the 8,624 lactating cows to evaluate the within-herd prevalence of Strep. agalactiae. Streptococcus agalactiae samples were cultured using a selective medium Tallium Kristalviolette Tossin, whereas for Staph. aureus, we used Baird Parker modified medium with added Rabbit Plasma Fibrinogen ISO-Formulation. In parallel, BTMS were tested using the rt-PCR. Regarding Strep. agalactiae, the posterior median of Se and Sp of the 2 BC was similar [qualitative BC: Se = 98%, posterior credible interval (95%PCI): 94-100%, and Sp = 99%, 95%PCI: 96-100%; quantitative BC: Se = 99%, 95%PCI: 96-100%, and Sp = 99%, 95%PCI: 95-100%] and higher than those of the rt-PCR (at 40 cycle threshold, Se = 92%, 95%PCI: 85-97%; Sp = 94%, 95%PCI: 88-98%). Also in case of Staph. aureus, the posterior medians of BC were generally higher than those of rt-PCR. In fact, although the Se of BC was slightly lower (rt-PCR at 40 cycle threshold, median Se = 99%, 95%PCI: 97-100%, and qualitative BC, median Se = 94%, 95%PCI: 87-99%), the Sp was much higher (rt-PCR at 40 cycle threshold, median Sp = 67%, 95%PCI: 38-97%; qualitative BC, median Sp = 95%; 95%PCI: 76-100%). Our study confirms that BC and rt-PCR are reliable diagnostic tools to detect Strep. agalactiae and Staph. aureus, and rt-PCR results should be confirmed by BC carried out on BTMS and possibly on composite milk samples. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Di Bartolo I.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Monini M.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Losio M.N.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Lombardia ed Emilia Romagna | Pavoni E.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Lombardia ed Emilia Romagna | And 2 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Noroviruses and rotaviruses from a gastroenteritis outbreak affecting >300 people near Garda Lake (Northern Italy) in 2009 were investigated. Characterization of viruses from 40 patient stool samples and 5 environmental samples identified three distinct rotavirus and five norovirus genotypes; two of the latter were detected in both patient and environmental samples. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. Source

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