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Cordioli P.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale di Lombardia ed Emilia Romagna | Parisi A.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale di Puglia e Basilicata | Lelli R.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dellAbruzzo e Del Molise G. Caporale
Molecular and Cellular Probes | Year: 2012

An atypical pestivirus ('Hobi'-like pestivirus, putative bovine viral diarrhoea 3, BVDV-3) was identified firstly in contaminated foetal calf serum batches and isolated subsequently from an outbreak of respiratory disease in a cattle herd in Italy. The isolation of the novel pestivirus from animals affected clinically posed concerns about the validity of BVDV eradication programs, considering that 'Hobi'-like pestivirus (BVDV-3) is undetected or mistyped by the molecular diagnostic tools currently employed. In this paper, the development of a nested PCR (nPCR) assay for unambiguous typing of all bovine pestiviruses is reported. The assay consisted of a first-round amplification using an oligonucleotide pair which binds to conserved sequences located in the 5' untranslated region and capsid gene, followed by a heminested PCR using virus-specific forward primers. The assay performances were evaluated analytically, showing good sensitivity and specificity. By analysis of 100 BVDV-positive samples typed using a nPCR assay discriminating ruminant pestiviruses, five samples recognised previously as BVDV-2 were not typed when submitted to the new assay (n= 2) or reacted as 'Hobi'-like pestivirus BVDV-3 (n= 3). Sequence analysis of the first-round amplification products showed that the untyped strains were border disease viruses, whereas the other three strains were true 'Hobi'-like viruses. The development of a molecular assay able to identify simultaneously all bovine pestiviruses known currently will help warrant biosafety of live vaccines and other biological products and assess the molecular epidemiology of 'Hobi'-like pestivirus, thus leading to the improvement of the eradication programs through unambiguous typing of pestiviruses infecting cattle. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Fasanella A.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale di Puglia e Basilicata | Hugh-Jones M.,Louisiana State University
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Year: 2014

Anthrax is a non-contagious infectious disease; it primarily affects herbivores, but all mammals, including humans, can be affected. Humans may contract anthrax directly or indirectly from infected animals. Veterinary surveillance systems, providing information about animal and human cases, should increase the efficacy of the animal anthrax management in order to protect population. Any aspect of the disease should be carefully monitored to implement effective prevention and control strategies. In this paper we propose a new, detailed classification of anthrax outbreaks, based on the source of the infection and the risk level for humans. We describe three different types of animal outbreaks and suggest the most effective procedures for their management and prevention.

Gallina S.,University of Bologna | Bianchi D.M.,University of Bologna | Ru G.,University of Bologna | Maurella C.,University of Bologna | And 11 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2015

Legislation introduced under European Commission Regulation (EC) n° 2073/2005 and later amendments (Reg. 1441/2007/EC, Reg. 365/2010/EC, Reg. 1089/2011/EC, Reg. 209/2013/EC) mandates that food business operators carry out microbiological analyses on meat carcass surfaces after slaughter procedures as part of hygiene monitoring of production. Besides setting forth general rules for sampling and sample preparation, Regulation EC 2073/2005 requires that operators comply with ISO 17604, which lists destructive and non-destructive sampling methods, selection of sampling sites, and rules for sample storage and transport.This study compares the effectiveness of destructive (excision) and non-destructive (sponge and wet-dry swabbing) methods for the recovery of total viable count (TVC) and Enterobacteriaceae on carcass surfaces. To do this, we pooled samples collected from carcasses of four animal species (cattle, n=120; pigs, n=130; horses, n=84; and small ruminants [sheep and goats], n=121). TVC and Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated and compared for each sampling method. Microbiological analyses were performed according to ISO 4833:2003 for TVC and ISO 21528:2004 for Enterobacteriaceae. The effectiveness of the sampling methods was analyzed by comparing the differences between the median of colony forming units per square centimeter (CFU/cm2) for TVC and Enterobacteriaceae recovered by each method. Non-parametric analysis of variance for repeated measures was applied for each species separately.Excision was the most effective method. The relationship between the CFU recovered by swabbing, by sponge, and by excision, for all species, was generally better than 1:5. This is in contrast with the Italian Ministry of Health Memorandum (23 December 2002), which states that non-destructive methods recover 20% of the destructive method. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Decaro N.,University of Bari | Crescenzo G.,University of Bari | Desario C.,University of Bari | Cavalli A.,University of Bari | And 7 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2014

Canine parvovirus (CPV) modified live virus vaccines are able to infect vaccinated dogs replicating in the bloodstream and enteric mucosa. However, the exact duration and extent of CPV vaccine-induced viremia and fecal shedding are not known. With the aim to fill this gap, 26 dogs were administered two commercial vaccines containing a CPV-2 or CPV-2b strain and monitored for 28 days after vaccination. By using real-time PCR, vaccine-induced viremia and shedding were found to be long lasting for both vaccinal strains. Vaccinal CPV-2b shedding was detected for a shorter period than CPV-2 (12 against 19 mean days) but with greater viral loads, whereas viremia occurred for a longer period (22 against 19 mean days) and with higher titers for CPV-2b. Seroconversion appeared as early as 7 and 14 days post-vaccination for CPV-2b and CPV-2 vaccines, respectively. With no vaccine there was any diagnostic interference using in-clinic or hemagglutination test, since positive results were obtained only by fecal real-time PCR testing. The present study adds new insights into the CPV vaccine persistence in the organism and possible interference with diagnostic tests. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Decaro N.,University of Bari | Larocca V.,University of Bari | Parisi A.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale di Puglia e Basilicata | Losurdo M.,University of Bari | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2013

A clinical outbreak of bovine piroplasmosis was reported in Italy. The etiological agent was characterized as Babesia occultans, a parasite regarded as apathogenic and never detected before in continental Europe. This report paves the way for further studies to assess the occurrence of this tick-transmitted protozoan in other European regions. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.

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